Wireless networks is a networking that does not involve cables. It is a technique that helps entrepreneurs and telecommunications networks to save the cost of cables for networking in specific premises in their installations. The transmission system is usually implemented and administrated via radio waves where the implementation takes place at physical level.
Figure 1 – Categories and coverage of wireless networks.
The types of networks are defined on the bases of their size (that is the number of machines), their range and the speed of data transfer.
Wireless PAN - Personal area network. Wireless Personal Area Networks
Such networks interconnect devices in small premises usually within the reach of a person for example invisible infra red light and Bluetooth radio interconnects a headphone to a laptop by the virtue of WPAN. With the installation of Wi-Fi into customer electronic devices the Wi-Fi PANs are commonly encountered.
Wireless LAN - Local Area Network. The simplest wireless distribution method that is used for interlinking two or more devices providing a connection to wider internet through an access point. OFDM or spread-spectrum technologies give clients freedom to move within a local coverage area while remaining connected to the LAN. LAN’s data transfer speed is typically 10 Mbps for Ethernet and 1 Gbps for Gigabit Ethernet. Such networks could accommodate as many as hundred or even one thousand users.
Wireless MAN - Metropolitan Area Networks. The wireless network that is used to connect at high speed multiple wireless LANs that are geographically close (situates anywhere in a few dozen kilometers). The network allows two or more nodes to communicate with each other as if they belong to the same LAN. The set up makes use of routers or switches for connecting with high-speed links such as fiber optic cables. WiMAX described as 802.16 standard by the IEEE is a type of WMAN.
Wireless WAN. WAN is the wireless network that usually covers large outdoor areas. The speed on such network depends on the cost of connection that increases with increasing distance. The technology could be used for interconnecting the branch offices of a business or public internet access system. Developed on 2.4GHz band these systems usually contain access points, base station gateways and wireless bridging relays. Their connectivity with renewable source of energy makes them stand alone systems. The most commonly available WAN is internet.
Mobile devices networks.The advent of smart phones have added a new dimension in telecommunications; today’s telephones are not meant to converse only but to carry data.
GSM -Global System for Mobile Communications. Global System for Mobile Communications is categorized as the base station system, the operation and support system and the switching system. The mobile phone is initially connected to the base system station that establishes a connection with the operation and support station that later on connects to the switching station where the call is made to the specific user.
PCS-Personal Communications Servic is a radio band that is employed in South Asia and North America; the first PCS service was triggered by Sprint.
D-AMPS Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service is the upgraded version of AMPS that is faded away due to technological advancements.
TAN - Tiny Area Network and CANs - Campus Area Networks are two other types of networks. TAN is similar to LAN but comparatively smaller (two to three machines) where CAN resembles MAN (with limited bandwidth between each LAN network).
The Utility of Wireless Networks. The development of wireless networks is still in progress as the usage is rapidly growing. Personal communications are made easy with the advent of cell phones where radio satellites are used for networking between continents. Whether small or big, businesses uses wireless networks for fast data sharing with economical means. Sometimes compatibility issues with new devices might arise in these extremely vulnerable networks but the technology has made the uploading and the downloading of huge data a piece of cake with least maintenance cost.
WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy as well as firewalls could be used for securing the network. Wireless networks are the future of global village.
Was chosen the technology(Wi-Fi) and its standard for planning network technology-IEEE 802.11g.
Described Wi-Fi network at the map of Ruzhichna region.
Performed the necessary calculation of total network throughput and chose the appropriate equipment produced by D-Link for implementation the project.
Construct a functional network structure.
List of literature:
WPA deployment guidelines for Public Access Wi-Fi Network. Wi-Fi Alliance , October 28, 2004
Development of Wi-Fi subscriber radio access network
for business center IN Mykolaiv city Zherdetskiy V.V.,graduate of the 5th course, faculty IN, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Supervisor, teacher of SS chair Lysyuk O.V.
Odessa National Academy of Telecommunication named after A.S. Popov
Summary.The work is devoted to design the broadband subscriber access network based on IEEE 802.11g standard and performing the calculation of planning network throughput.
In this bachelor's project the broadband subscriber access network based on Wi-Fi technology was planned. We justified the choosing of technology, its standard and network topology. Also we performed the total network throughput calculation. Appropriate equipment is chosen. Areas of communications and informatization of Ukraine is now on the leading positions among the fastest growing sectors of the economy in Ukraine. The economic development of Ukraine in general and in particular in the sphere of communications requires the maximum of world trends on the use of information and telecommunication technologies, and tremendous opportunities of the Internet. Under these conditions, the decisive factor in building the information society in Ukraine is the creation of infrastructure of information systems and information security of network technologies.
Today Ukraine Wireless network is developing rapidly. Infrastructure of Ukrainian Wireless Access based on different technologies. One of them is the technology of wireless radio access Wi Fi(wireless fidelity).The technology, which uses the IEEE 802.11(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) standard can provide broadband access to Internet, data, video and voice. The usage of new network Wi Fi (standard IEEE 802.11) will provide great opportunities to move Ukraine into the information society.
Perspective of development wireless broadband access Wi Fi (standard IEEE 802.11) connected to the fact that in Ukraine every day growing the demand on broadband access. Also, many Ukrainian companies have licenses for 2.4 GHz frequency range.
That’s why the aim of this work is to plan the broadband subscriber access network based on IEEE 802.11g standard by installing of access points in public places for the business center of Mykolaiv city.
At the dawn of development of radio engineering, the term "wireless" used to describe the radio in a broad sense, it’s mean that transferred information was carried out without the wires. The term "wireless" nowadays usually referred to the new radio technology, such as microcellular and cellular telephony, paging, subscriber access, etc.
Wireless networks comparing to traditional wired networks, got considerable advantages, main among them, of course, is:
- Easy deployment;
- Flexibility of the network architecture, providing the ability of dynamic change the topology of the network at the moment of connecting, movement and disconnecting of mobile users without significant loss of time;
- Likewise, the wireless network does not require cables(often requiring crushing walls).
At the same time, the wireless network at the present stage of their development are not without serious shortcomings. First of all, it is dependent speed and range on the presence of barriers and the distance between the transmitter and receiver. One way of increasing the range of your wireless network is to create a distributed network based on multiple wireless access points. The establishment of such networks, it is possible to convert the building into a single wireless zone and increase the speed of the connection regardless of the number of walls (barriers).
Similarly, solved the problem of scalability of the network, and what about use of external directional antennas give probability effectively solve the problem with barriers, limiting the signal.
There are three types of wireless networks: WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network), WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) and WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network).
In the construction of WLAN and WPAN, and broadband wireless access (BWA - Broadband Wireless Access) used similar technology. The key difference between them - operating frequency range and characteristics of the radio interface.
WLAN and WPAN operating in unlicensed frequency bands 2,4 and 5 GHz, so their deployment does not require frequency planning and coordination with other radio networks operating in the same range. Network BWA (Broadband Wireless Access) is used as a licensed and unlicensed bands (from 2 to 66 GHz).
Conclusion. In my bachelor project, I made a justification of the project « Development of Wi-Fi subscriber radio access network for business center in Mykolaiv city.»
We analyze wireless access networks. Review modern telecommunication situation in Ukraine. Chose the technology and its standard for planning network and substitute the choice of IEEE 802.11g (Wi-Fi) technology, accounting all advantages and disadvantages. So we have the most optimal variant due to the relation between functionality and cost efficiency.
In the technical part of the project, we construct a network of wireless access to the establishment of fifteen access points Next step was to perform the necessary calculation of total network throughput. Then we construct the functional scheme of the network.
As for the choice of equipment for the project, it was given preference in favor of the company D-Link. Justification of the choice of equipment is done taking into account the technical characteristics, possible applications, coat and so on.
"Fundamentals of wireless LANs, 802.11. A Practical Guide to exploration, development and use of wireless LAN standard 802.11 "/ Pedzhman Roshan, Jonathan Lieri. – M.: Cisco Press Translation from English publishing house "Williams", 2004
WPA deployment guidelines for Public Access Wi-Fi Network. Wi-Fi Alliance , October 28, 2004
"Wireless network. First Step / Jim Geier. - Moscow: Publisher: Williams, 2005
Vishnevsky VM, Lyakhov AI, Portnoy SL, Shakhnovich IV Broadband wireless data transmission. Publisher: Cam Publication: 2005.
VA Grigoriev, OI Lagutenko, Y. Raspail, web and radio access system. Publisher: Eco-Trendz, Y: 2005
«WLAN: a practical guide for administrators and power users" / Thomas Maufer. – M.: KUDITS-image, 2005
TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION AND TRAFFIC ENGENEERING
OF STANDARD IEEE 802.11g/n ВоробієнкоІ.С., студент 5-го курсу, факультету ІМ, групи ТЕ-5.01м,
Науковий керівник – ст.викладач Бабіч Ю.О.
Одеська національна академія зв’язку ім. О.С. Попова, Україна
Annotation.The task is to design IEEE 802.11g/n network and estimate its performance characteristics after doing traffic engineering .Is aimed at planning IEEE 802.11g/n network that operates according to the Triple Play Conception. The planned IEEE 802.11g/n network must be capable of providing video, voice and data services to the subscribers using notebook computer or smart phones to access the IEEE 802.11g/n network. The goal is to estimate the existing demand for wireless broadband access. This goal means that it is necessary to find exact locations to install access points for WiFi access.
The second objective is to select the most economically efficient equipment to implement the IEEE 802.11g/n access. This objective includes comparison of different equipment from different manufacturers and selecting the most efficient ones.
The third is to synthesis IEEE 802.11g/n network with minimum length. Network with the minimum length is the ultimately efficient network. This task is addressed in the “Concept of Ukrainian networks development”. The Concept inspires telecommunication companies to implement broadband wireless access in order to 1) increase the amount of telecommunication services available for citizens; 2) convergent fixed and wireless telecommunication networks; 3) increase the total capacity of telecommunication networks. This task also includes the estimation of the performance characteristics of the broadband wireless network with the minimum length. It is necessary to mention that networking within the project is based on the principles addressed in the Ukrainian Law regulating telecommunications. Let us point out some of the mentioned are 1) equal rights to access telecommunication networks and telecommunication services; 2) privacy.
The fourth task is to perform traffic engineering for the planned IEEE 802.11g/n network. The traffic engineering includes 1) planning of an access point throughput; 2) planning the throughput of a switch (under normal operation conditions and in the case of malfunction); 3) planning the throughput of the network’s router.
IEEE 802.11g accumulates advantages of IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11b, for example the bit rate of 54 mbps. The same time IEEE 802.11g is built in the most of modern terminals like smart phones, notebooks, palm computers etc. However IEEE 802.11n is the future standard that supports far greater bit rate compared to the IEEE 802.11g. One way or another IEEE 802.11n standard will overcome the IEEE 802.11g (because IEEE 802.11n provides greater bit rate, which means can earn more money for the network owner) in the foreseeable future and this fact cannot be ignored.
In this case the logical solution is to implement a WiFi network that is capable of supporting both IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11n. Support of IEEE 802.11g will earn profit for network owner now while the support of IEEE 802.11n will earn profit in the foreseeable future. In the following chapters we will select exact network solutions for the planned IEEE 802.11g/n network.
Architecture of the planned IEEE 802.11g/n network equipment. Every access point supports 50 subscribers and transits 21.99 Mbps of subscriber traffic towards a switch .Switch concentrates subscriber traffic coming from access points and routes packets dynamically.
Technology 1000 Base-T is implemented to transport information between access points and switch. 1000 Base-T is used instead of 100 Base-T because the planned network supports IEEE 802.11n standard. Power supply for access points is provided by switches. Every switch has an uninterruptable power source (UPS) that grants power supply for the switch and access points in the case of power supply failure.
Every switch can control access points (even reboot if necessary). Every switch performs vital security functions like filtering IP and MAC addresses.
It is necessary to notice that switches of the planned network use three or two SFP ports (out of four). One unused SFP port can be used in future to build up the planned IEEE 802.11g/n network to support more subscribers.
All the network traffic is directed to the network router. We implement Cisco 6503 to carry out functions of the router for the planned IEEE 802.11g/n network. This router is capable to control traffic flows dynamically depending on the network load conditions.
Router performs some vital functions for IEEE 802.11g/n network: 1) it support the necessary server equipment; 2) it performs functionality of DHCP server (stores and distributes IP addresses for subscribers of the planned network); 3) it controls traffic loads within the network etc.
Router is connected to a packet switching subsystem of HE .It is necessary to point out server equipment. The AAA (stands for authentication, authorization and accounting) server performs functionality necessary to identify subscriber entity. The subscriber edge services manager (SESM) is generally represented by the web page that users use to configure their profiles and access characteristics. DHCP server is the functionality of router while AAA and SESM functionality is carried out by separate server interacting with router with the help of RADIUS protocol.
IEEE 802.11g/n network estimate its performance characteristics after doing traffic engineering.
To implement equipment that is capable to support technologies demanded in the foreseeable future.
To use the algorithm of minimum length network synthesis for networks development.
To set uninterruptable power sources for switches (and provide power supply over Ethernet) of IEEE 802.11g/n network instead of using power backups for every access point of the network.
1. Концепція розвитку телекомунікацій в Україні до 2010 року.
7. Тихвинский В.О.Сети мобильной связи LTE. / С.В. Терентьев, А.Б. Юрчук // Технологии и архитектура. - М.: Эко-Трендз, 2010. - 284 с.: ил.
8. Опис та технічні характеристики маршрутизатора D-Link.
9. Специфікація Cisco Catalyst 6500 and 6500-E Series Switch.
10. Клейнрок Л. Теория массового обслуживания. Пер. с англ. / Пер. И.И. Грушко. – М.: Машиностроение, 1979. – 432 с.
11. Никитюк Л.А. Элементы синтеза и анализа телекоммуникационных сетей. УГАС. – Одесса, 2000.– 44 с.
12. Опис технології 1000 Base-T. http://lectures.net.ru/lan/6/
PLANNING OF BROADBAND SUBSCRIBER ACCESS NETWORK
ON STANDARD IEEE 802.11g Шумліна Д.О.,магістрант 5-ого курсу, факультету ІМ, e-mail: email@example.com
Науковий керівник – ст.викл. Бабіч Ю.О.
Одеська національна академія зв’язку ім. О.С. Попова
Annotation. In this article is considered the deployment of the wireless Wi-Fi network, based on the IEEE 802.11g standard on the example of the existed city. Also are performed researching and selecting of the necessary equipment and implementation of terminals for data collection and mobile POS-terminals with supporting the IEEE 802.11g technology Perspective direction of the improvement of the wireless communication is the development of the network, which can be used simply and quickly for every user. Wireless network can be deployed and launch in significantly shorter time than wired, and bring suitable and remote access to all the necessary Internet services. So, its development and deployment is so necessary nowadays. As always, all technologies have their own drawbacks and benefits.
The benefits of the Wi-Fi technology are:
Allows you to expand the network without laying cable, which can reduce the cost of deployment and / or expansion. Places where you cannot lay cable, such as outdoors and in buildings that have historical value, may be served by wireless networks.
Let’s you have access to mobile devices.
And if to speak about drawbacks, we can point out following:
Frequency range and performance limitations in different countries are different. In many European countries are allowed two additional channels, which are banned in the U.S. In Japan, there is another channel in the top of percentage range, while other countries, like Spain, prohibit use of low-frequency channels. Moreover, some countries, like Russia, Belarus and Italy, require registration of all networks.
Wi-Fi facilities, working outside, require registration of Wi-Fi-operators.
The chosen IEEE 802.11g standard– is a standard of wireless local area networks based on wireless transmission of data in the range of 2.4 GHz and data rates transmission of 54Mbps [OFDM, DSSS]. So, the choice of this standard was made according to the support features of the most of devices, which exists nowadays and in the fact, that .IEEE 802.11g standard holds up advantages of the previous standards IEEE 802.11a (b) standards.
The deployment of this wireless system was made in such steps:
Location of Access points (AP) in the places, where the demand on its services is the highest one.
Construction the map of planning network, with all necessary devices and connection links.
Calculation of the throughput for planning network
Choosing of appropriate equipment (routers, switches, access points)
In order to pick up the right equipment for Wi-Fi network construction, it is necessary to be guided by such indicators as certification of equipment in Ukraine, its quality, price, manufacturer, availability of required necessary number and type of ports and by others factors. As the result of comparison of ZyXEL, Cisco and D-Link equipment, Cisco equipment was chosen as the best one, because it proposes a wide range of equipment and communication devices and has the greatest MTBF (Mean time between failures).
One of the main features of wireless network projection based on IEEE 802.11g standard is the implementation of Wi-Fi payment POS-terminals and also data collection terminals, which will be in use in cafes, restaurants, bars, stores, shopping malls in the chosen city. They will help to make customer’s payments for received services more convenient and easier.
Data collection terminals are portable or handheld devices used to input, read, and/or log data. They often have barcode and wireless data transmission capability. Most data collection terminals can be carried by users, plugged into larger devices such as workstation consoles, or mounted to walls and inside of vehicles.
Point of sale (POS) (also sometimes referred to as Point of purchase (POP) or checkout is the location where a transaction occurs. Presence of POS-terminal allows accepting all types of banking cards, including the most common e-cards «Visa» and «MasterCard», which speeds up the transaction payment and reduces the reimbursement of money spent on operations.
Payment terminals based on Wi-Fi technology will reduce queues in the sales departments or improve the system of payment in cafes and restaurants, because the client can pay cashless, while, for example, staying away from the cash desks itself or from the place of order. Implementation of such kind of devices will attract more clients and customer to the Wi-Fi technology. So, the development of this technology in future will be a great decision of such current problems as quality of communication, internet connection, data transfer and many others.