April 1 (Bloomberg) – Ford Motor Co. outsold General Motors Co. for the first time in more than a year and the second time in the past 13 years in March as GM offered smaller discounts and Ford boosted sales of new or refreshed models.
Ford’s light-vehicle deliveries in the month increased to 212,295, topping GM’s sales of 206,621, the companies said today. GM’s 9.6 percent sales gain trailed five analysts’ average estimate for a 20 percent gain. Ford’s 16 percent increase topped the average estimate for a 13 percent advance.
GM reduced discounts by $600 to $800 per vehicle in March from February, dropping them below the industry average of about 10 percent of selling prices, Don Johnson, GM’s vice president of U.S. sales, said yesterday. Ford, which doubled sales of the redesigned Explorer sport-utility vehicle, last beat GM’s sales in February 2010 and during a GM strike in August 1998.
“Ford is clearly winning the overall war here,” said Mitchell Stapley, who helps oversee $17.7 billion as chief fixed-income officer at Fifth Third Asset Management in Grand Rapids, Michigan. “GM hasn’t had the organic sales growth without rebates that they need to be able to say they’ve regained momentum from Ford.”
GM rose $1.45, or 4.7 percent, to $32.48 at 2:13 p.m. in New York Stock Exchange composite trading. Ford gained 44 cents, or 3 percent, to $15.35.
Chrysler Group LLC, the third-largest U.S. automaker, reported a 31 percent increase in sales for the month, beating the 20 percent average estimate of five analysts surveyed by Bloomberg.
Bloomberg L.P. - американська компанія (партнерство з обмеженою відповідальністю), провайдер фінансової інформації. Один з двох провідних світових постачальників фінансової інформації для професійних учасників фінансових ринків.
The March 11 Japan earthquake that shut factories of auto manufacturers and their suppliers may not have a “significant” impact on industry sales, GM’s Johnson said today. He repeated GM’s forecast from earlier this year that U.S. auto sales may rise to 13 million to 13.5 million in 2011, including medium-and heavy-duty vehicles.
“Based on everything I see now, I just don’t see a significant slowdown happening,” Johnson said on a conference call.
Ford said today in a regulatory filing that the earthquake may “adversely affect” its financial condition. The automaker’s truck plant in Louisville, Kentucky, will be closed next week due to a parts shortage, Ford said today on a conference call. The factory makes F-Series pickups and the Lincoln Navigator and Ford Expedition SUVs, according to its website.
GM ended March with inventory of about 574,000 vehicles, 57,000 more than a month earlier, according to today’s statement. The automaker’s increased sales of the Chevrolet Cruze helped double GM’s share in the compact-car segment to more than 11 percent in the first quarter, from 5.
Lincoln - торгова марка підрозділу автоконцерну Форд, що спеціалізується на випуску автомобілів люкс-класу. Заснована в 1917 Генрі Ліландом, придбана Фордом у 1922 році, Lincoln виробляв транспортні засоби починаючи з 1920-х.
Chevrolet Cruze - сімейство автомобілів, які виробляються американською компанією Chevrolet.
4 percent in the same period a year earlier.
Ford’s sales of the Explorer climbed to 12,482, while the new Fiesta small car set a monthly record of 9,787 deliveries. Sales of the Fusion sedan climbed 21 percent to 27,566.
“The margin is larger than we expected,” Michelle Krebs, a senior analyst at Edmunds.com, said of Ford’s victory today in an interview. “Ford has a lot of momentum right now, and GM is suffering a hangover from the aggressive incentives they offered in January and February.”
Automakers’ average incentive spending may have fallen to $2,346 per vehicle sold in March, an 8.6 percent drop from February, according to Edmunds. That’s the biggest February-to-March decline since Edmunds began tracking the data in 2002, the Santa Monica, California-based researcher said.
– With assistance from Alan Ohnsman in Los Angeles. Editors: Kevin Orland, Jamie Butters
From the Washington Post
Вариант 3 1. Оберіть правильний варiант (a,b,c або d)
1. My mother _________ by air.
a) never has traveled c) has never travel
b) has never travelled d) is never traveled
2. If I ________ the signal, I would have stopped.
a) see b) has seen c) would have seen d) had seen
3. These houses ________ 100 years ago.
a) were building b) are built c) were built d) built
4. Unfortunately, environmentalists _______ any significant results in their fight against warming.
a) haven’t achieved b) achieved c) have achieved d) will achieve
5. Save our Earth (SOE) is an organization founded two years ago. Its aim is ________ awareness among young people of environmental issues.
a) raising b) having raised c) to raise d) to have raised
6. After _______ as a player he continued to be a referee until the age of 50.
a) retires b) retired c) to retire d) retiring
7. I’m busy at the moment. I ________ on the computer.
a) work b) am work c) am working d) working
8. _________ he has a great sense of humour or he is simply trying to distract attention from the real strategic issue.
a) Neither b) Another c) Other d) Either
9. Investors___________ for indicators of the pace of economic growth were disappointed by the results obtained.
a) looks b) are looking c) to look d) looking
10. ________ men still work for Nestle in other countries.
Nestlé SA (французька вимова: [nɛsle]) - швейцарська компанія, найбільший у світі виробник харчових продуктів, зі штаб-квартирою у місті Веве, Швейцарія. Компанія посідає 72 місце у Fortune Global 500 згідно рейтингу найбільших компаній світу за 2014 рік.
a) Every b) Each c) Both d) Either
11. At this time tomorrow __________ over the Atlantic.
a) we flying b) we’ll be flying c) we’ll fly d) we to fly
12. I _________ like that coat. It’s really nice.
a) am b) do c) very d) yes
13. I really enjoyed the disco. It was great, ________?
a) is it b) isn’t it c) was it d) wasn’t it.
14. “I was late for work today.” – “___________”
a) So was John. b) Either John was. c) So John was. d) So wasn’t John.
15. I’m going to go out and _________.
a) have cut my hair b) have my hair cut c) let my hair cut d) my hair be cut.
16. Someone suggested _________ for a walk.
a) go b) going c) of going d) to go.
17. The police want __________ anything suspicious.
a) that we report b) us reporting c) us to report d) we report.
18. “My bag is very heavy.” – “I _______ it for you.”
a) ‘m carrying b) ‘ll carry c) carry d) am going to carry.
19. Changes in financial trends are so ________ nowadays that I can’t keep with them.
a) fastest b) faster c) fast d) fasty.
20. Production at the factory was seriously affected _________ the strike.
a) at b) in c) about d) during
Оберіть правильний варіант (a, b, c або d), який може бути використано на місці підкресленого слова або словосполучення без зміни змісту речення.
21. The journalist refused to disclose the source of his information.
a) enclose b) propose c) reveal d) develop
22. If you can’t find what you want in this chapter, look it up in the directory.
a) guide b) brochure c) newspaper d) magazine
23. I’m thinking of changing my job because there are few prospects of promotion.
a) chances b) arguments c) reduction d) assumption
24. It’s claimed that government privatization plan means that at least a thousand workers will becomeredundant.
a) will be promoted b) will be fired c) will be awarded d) will be marked
25. The World Bank has criticised the United States for not giving enough financial aid to the East European countries.
Сполу́чені Шта́ти Аме́рики, також США, Сполу́чені Шта́ти, Шта́ти, Аме́рика (англ. United States of America, USA, U.S., the USA, the States, America) - федеративне об'єднання в Північній Америці, що складається з 50 штатів: Аляски, Гаваїв, 48 штатів на території між Атлантичним і Тихим океанами і між Канадою і Мексикою та федерального (столичного) округу Колумбія.
a) help b) allowance c) loan d) premium
26. Being a teacher, I shop at stores which offer a discount to teachers.
a) deduction b) cost reduction c) rebate d) subsidy
27. We demanded pay rises to take into account the rate of inflation
29. You are obliged to present an electronic version of your report.
a) informed b) known c) required d) proposed
30. Jean has inherited a lot of money.
a) invested b) come into a fortune c) neglected d) abandoned
2. Прочитайте текст. Визначте, чи є наступні речення правильними (True) чи ні (False) відповідно до тексту. Eye contact In many Western societies, including the United States, a person who does not maintain “good eye contact” is regarded as being slightly suspicious, or a “shifty” character. Americans unconsciously associate people who avoid eye contact as unfriendly, insecure, untrustworthy, inattentive and impersonal. However, in contrast, Japanese children are taught in school to direct their gaze at the region of their teacher’s Adam’s apple or tie knot, and, as adults, Japanese lower their eyes when speaking to a superior, a gesture of respect.
Latin American cultures, as well as some African cultures, such as Nigeria, have longer looking time, but prolonged eye contact from an individual of lower status is considered disrespectful. In the US, it is considered rude to stare – regardless of who is looking at whom. In contrast, the polite Englishman is taught to pay strict attention to a speaker, to listen carefully, and to blink his eyes to let the speaker know he or she has been understood as well as heard. Americans signal interest and comprehension by bobbing their heads or grunting.
A widening of the eyes can also be interpreted differently, depending on circumstances and culture. Take, for instance, the case of an American and a Chinese discussing the terms of a proposed contract. Regardless of the language in which the proposed contract is carried out, the US negotiator may interpret a Chinese person’s widened eyes as an expression of astonishment instead of as a danger signal (its true meaning) of politely expressed anger.
2 Japanese children are taught in school to look directly into the eyes.
3 Americans signal interest and comprehension by blinking their eyes.
4 For the US negotiator a Chinese person’s widened eyes express astonishment.
5 A Chinese person’s widened eyes are a danger signal of politely expressed anger.
3. Прочитайте текст. Складіть анотацію до тексту (5-7 речень).
Mergers and Acquisitions in Telecom Sector – Telecommunications Industry mergers and acquisitions
By Fiona Lynne
The number of mergers and acquisitions in Telecom Sector has been increasing significantly. Telecommunications industry is one of the most profitable and rapidly developing industries in the world and it is regarded as an indispensable component of the worldwide utility and services sector. Telecommunication industry deals with various forms of communication mediums, for example mobile phones, fixed line phones, as well as Internet and broadband services.
Currently, a slew of mergers and acquisitions in Telecom Sector are going on throughout the world. The aim behind such mergers is to attain competitive benefits in the telecommunications industry.
The mergers and acquisitions in Telecom Sector are regarded as horizontal mergers simply because of the reason that the entities going for merger or acquisition are operating in the same industry that is telecommunications industry.
In the majority of the developed and developing countries around the world, mergers and acquisitions in the telecommunications sector have become a necessity. This kind of mergers also assists in creation of jobs.
Both transnational and domestic telecommunications services providers are keen to try merger and acquisition options because this will help them in many ways. They can cut down on their expenses, achieve greater market share and accomplish market control.
Mergers and acquisitions in the telecommunications sector have been showing a prosperous trend in the recent past and the economists are advocating that they will continue to do so. The majority of telecommunication services providers have understood that in order to grow globally, strategic alliances and mergers and acquisitions are the principal devices.
Private sector investment and FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) have also boosted the growth of mergers and acquisitions in the telecommunications sector.
Over the last few years, a phenomenal growth has been witnessed in the number of mergers and acquisitions taking place in the telecommunications industry. The reasons behind this development include the following:
Introduction of sophisticated technologies (Wireless land phone services)
Innovative products and services (Internet, broadband and cable services)
Economic reforms have spurred the growth in the mergers and acquisitions industry of the telecommunications sector to a satisfactory level.
Mergers and acquisitions in Telecom Sector can also have some negative effects, which include monopolization of the telecommunication products and services, unemployment and others. However, the governments of various countries take appropriate steps to curb these problems.
In countries like India, mergers and acquisitions have increased to a considerable level from the mid 1990s. In the United States, the mergers and acquisitions in the telecommunications sector are going on in a full-fledged manner.
The mergers and acquisitions in the telecommunications sector are governed or supervised by the regulatory authority of the telecommunication industry of a particular country, for instance the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India or TRAI. The regulatory authorities always keep a tab on the telecommunications industry so that no monopoly is formed.
From Economist Варіант 4 1. Оберіть правильний варіант (a, b, c або d).
1. Do you think it’s worth _____ an air-conditioner installed in our office?
a) will be having b) having c) to have been d) to have
2. I’m absolutely sure that the new design _________ improve sales.
a) have to b) could be c) are d) will
3. He denied ________ the money from the budget of the corporation.
a) to take b) to have taken c) take d) having taken
4. I can’t really help you, I’m afraid. You’ll have to find someone ______ knowledge of Excel is better than mine.
a) who’s got b) whose c) which d) that
5. We _______ our target of 30,000 registered users of the website by the end of the year.
a) will reach b) will have reached c) will be reaching d) going to reach
6. I ______ to work for a company if I thought they discriminated against anyone on account of their colour or race.
a) wouldn’t want b)wouldn’t have wanted c) hadn’t wanted d) didn’t want
7. The report warned Stone & Co _______ the legal action as the weight of evidence was heavily against the company.
a) do not contest b) not contesting c) not to contest d) to not contest
8. Lie detectors _______ in the USA since the 1950s but they remain controversial and their results are not always accepted by courts.
a) were widely used c) have widely used
b) were being widely used d) have been widely used
9. Cheque volumes _____ a peak in 1990 but usage has fallen since then, mainly owing to increased use of plastic cards and direct debits by personal customers.
a) reached b) were reaching c) have reached d) had reached
10. He’s very funny. He makes ________.
a) me laugh b) me laughing c) me to laugh d) me laughed
11. Just a few years ago many companies ______ a commitment to create entirely new product categories through innovative technologies.
a) have combined b) were combining c) had combined d) were combined
12. I went to the shop ________ a newspaper.
a) for buy b) to buying c) to buy d) buy
13. Do you know when _________?
a) will they come b) shall they come c) they will come d) would they come
14. “Have you ever been to China?” “Yes, I ________ there in 1990.”
a) have gone b) went c) had been d) have been
15. Despite evidence to the contrary, the company refused _______ any charges of racial discrimination.
a) having accepted b) accept c) accepting d) to accept
16. _______ several weeks of intense negotiations, we finally reached an agreement on price.
a) before b) after c) during d) since
17. Lifestyle brands _______ Nike or Virgin may be better equipped to market 3G services than Europe’s global telecoms groups.
a) similar b) such as c) the same as d) as well as
18. We are very sorry, but that particular vacancy _______ filled.
a) has just been b) was just c) has just d) just
19. _______ such healthy brand recognition and its website carrying 14,000 vacancies, increasing losses have forced the company into liquidation.
a) however b) because c) despite d) although
20. We are happy to provide capital when they need it. It’s a close working relationship and they keep us ________ at all times.
a) inform b) to inform c) informing d) informed
Оберіть правильний варіант (a, b, c або d), який може бути використано на місці підкресленого слова або словосполучення без зміни змісту речення.
21. It is now common corporate policy for a company to have a mission statement explaining the aims of the business.
a) strategic b) domestic c) international d) organizational
22. You should speak more loudly and more slowly when you want to emphasize an important point.
24. One of the most important skills to learn is how to utilize your time effectively.
a) take notice of b) pay attention to c) take care of d) make use of
25. The outcome of the experiment was a complete surprise to everyone.
a) beginning b) start c) result d) launch
26. He is a pleasant colleague, and very proficient at his job.
a) skilled b) profitable c) popular d) active
27. They declared that they had been the first to discover those facts.
a) proposed b) introduced c) stated d) demonstrated
28. The theory proved to be correct and was a major breakthrough in the history of science.
a) true b) valuable c) unique d) false
29. Communication between researchers depends on precise definition of concepts and ideas.
a) faulty b) broad c) accurate d) standard
30. The results obtained signify that we still know very little about these phenomena.
a) convince b) disprove c) guarantee d) indicate
2. Прочитайте текст. Визначте, чи є наступні речення правильними (True) чи ні (False) відповідно до тексту. Telephoning across cultures Many people are not very confident about using the telephone in English. However, good preparation can make telephoning much easier and more effective. Then, once the call begins, speak slowly and clearly and use simple language.
Check that you understand what has been said. Repeat the most important information, look for confirmation. Ask for repetition if you think it is necessary.
Remember too that different cultures have different ways of using language. Some speak in a very literal way so it is always quite clear what they mean. Others are more indirect, using hints, suggestions and understatement (for example “not very good results” = “absolutely disastrous”) to put over their message. North America, Scandinavia, Germany and France are “explicit” countries, while the British have a reputation for not making clear exactly what they mean.
Фра́нція, офіційна назва Францу́зька Респу́бліка (фр. La France, République Française) - держава на заході Європи, республіка, що межує на північному сході з Бельгією, Люксембургом і Німеччиною, на сході з Німеччиною, Швейцарією, південному-заході з Іспанією й Андоррою, на південному-сході з Італією та Монако на півдні омивається Середземним морем, на заході - Атлантичним океаном.
Німе́ччина (нім. Deutschland) - країна в Центральній Європі, демократична федеративна республіка. Офіційна назва - Федерати́вна Респу́бліка Німе́ччина (нім. Bundesrepublik Deutschland, МФА: [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant]).
One reason for this seems to be that the British use language in a more abstract way than most Americans and continental Europeans. In Britain there are also conventions of politeness and a tendency to avoid showing one’s true feelings. For example if a Dutchman says an idea is ‘interesting’ he means that it is interesting. If an Englishman says that an idea is ‘interesting’ you have to deduce from the way he says it whether he means it is a good idea or a bad idea.
Meanwhile, for similar reasons Japanese, Russians and Arabs –“subtle” countries – sometimes seem vague and devious to the British. If they say an idea is interesting it may be out of politeness.
The opposite of this is that plain speakers can seem rude and dominating to subtle speakers, as Americans can sound to the British – or the British to the Japanese. The British have a tendency to engage in small talk at the beginning and end of a telephone conversation. Questions about the weather, health, business in general and what one has been doing recently are all part of telephoning, laying a foundation for the true purpose of the call. At the end of the call there may well be various pleasantries, Nice talking to you, Say hello to the family (if you have met them) and Looking forward to seeing you again soon. A sharp, brief style of talking on the phone may appear unfriendly to a British partner. Not all nationalities are as keen on small talk as the British!
Being aware of these differences can help in understanding people with different cultural traditions. The difficulty on the telephone is that you cannot see the body language to help you.
Adapted from Faxes, phones and foreigners by kind permission of British Telecommunications pic.
1 Different cultures have the same ways of using language.
2 The Americans have a reputation for not making clear exactly what they mean.
3 If Japanese say an idea is interesting it may be out of politeness.
4 Having small talk at the beginning and end of a telephone conversation is important for the British.
5 All nationalities are as keen on small talk as the British.
3. Прочитайте текст. Складіть анотацію до тексту (5-7 речень). Stock Market Overview By Nigel Merriden
Stock Market has a huge arena and has diversified fields in it. It is not possible to give every detail of every topic of the wide array of Sock Market in this single article. Stock Market Overview gives a bird’s eye-view on this vast field. A person interested in the Stock Market would appreciate our sincere effort to give a Stock Market Overview in Question-Answer format.
Stocks are certificates which represent ownership rights of the holder in a company.
Stock Market is an organized market where shares are issued and traded. These shares are either traded through Stock exchanges or Over-the-Counter (OTC) in physical or electronic form. Stock Market plays an important role in channelizing capital from the investors to the business houses which consequently leads to the availability of funds for business expansion.
The Stock Market can be divided into two parts, one is Primary Market and the other is the Secondary Market. Primary Market deals with securities that are channelized through the Initial Public Offer (IPO) route. After the issuance of the stocks to the general public, these stocks are then bought and sold by the investors between themselves in the Secondary Market. Here, the stock issuing corporation has no direct influence on these trades.
Stocks in the Stock Market are either traded through Stock Exchanges or Over-the-Counter. Stock Exchanges are organized market places where stocks, bonds are other equivalents are traded between the buyers and sellers. The contracts are standardized ones. But in case of Over–the–Counter, the trade takes place through a network of dealers and the contracts are bilateral customized ones.
Stock Prices are determined through price mechanism where the demand and supply of stocks work against one another and determine the price. If there is an excess demand for stocks then the price will rise and vice versa. Many economists refer this as the invisible hand of the market which determines the stock price known as the demand–supply mechanism.
Stocks basically are of three types, namely, Common Stock, Preferential Stock, and Convertible Preferential Stock. Common Stock gives ownership right to the holders of the stock. The holders are entitled to receive dividends whenever the company announces. Preferential Stock gives ownership right to its holders. Its holders enjoy the privilege of receiving dividends from the company in preference to any other common share holders. Convertible Preferential Stock give its holders the option of converting them into common stocks of the issuing company. The dividends in these stocks are comparatively higher.
The participants of a Stock Market are Buyers, Sellers and Stock Brokers. Buyers are investors who buy a script in the belief that the market will rise. If his hinge becomes right then he makes profit otherwise he suffers loss. Seller of a stock sells in the hope that the stock price will go down. Stock Brokers are persons or firms who execute buy/sell order on behalf of the investors and charge a commission for rendering the service.
The platforms through which the stocks are traded are 1) Offline Stock Trading, and 2) Online Stock Trading. In case of Offline Stock Trading, the customer has to place order to the dealer of the stock broking firm either in person or over phone. But in case of the Online Stock Trading, the client could place his order on his own from any place he wants, provided he has a computer with an internet connection.
From The Financial Times
Варіант 5 1.
Файненшл таймс (англ. Financial Times) - впливова щоденна британська газета міжнародних фінансових кіл, яка виходить в Лондоні. Видається кількома мовами світу.
Оберіть правильний варіант (a, b, c або d).
1. Faced with an investigation, the company admitted _________ a banned chemical
a) use b) using c) to have used d) to use
2. I wouldn’t invest in a company if I ______ out that they were any way involved in child labour.
a) find b) found c) had found d) would find
3. Research ________ that this technology is not precise at all.
a) was indicated b) are indicating c) indicated d) indicates
a) making b) going to make c) have made d) having to make
5. In the present atmosphere of political correctness, you _______ be very careful what you say to colleagues at work. An inappropriate joke could be seen as harassment.
a) can b) have to c) may d) would
6. The company donates a lot of money to good causes. It also encourages staff ________ charities by matching any private donations they give.
a) supporting b) support c) to support d) be supported
7. Should you be interested in learning more about us and our products, please send me a direct mailing address and I __________ post the catalogue and samples immediately.
a) would like b) have c) am going to d) will
8. UK citizens __________ get a visa for travelling to the USA.
a) shouldn’t b) don’t have to c) will not d) mustn’t
9. Our company ________ in the business of producing and exporting stylish, quality ladies leather accessories for over 80 years.
a) is b) has been c) was d) will be
10. A new manager __________ recruited until next year.
a) will not be b) is not c) can’t d) has
11. ________ there is no competition or profit-making in the public sector, there are very few cases of industrial espionage.
a) after b) however c) already d) as
12. The company had to pay a fine after _______ guilty of paying for information from employees of one of their rivals.
a) finding b) being found c) found d) have found
13. I had no idea that they were sold on the black market for $10 ______ .
a) every b) each c) one d) all
14. We ________ passwords but too many people forgot them and had to ring the IT department saying they were locked out of the computer system.
a) were issuing b) have issued c) used to issue d) should issue
15. The interviewer asked _________ I had any experience of working with html.
a) have b) how c) could d) whether
16. _______ we’re competitors; it clearly makes sense for us to share the cost of basic research.
a) Due to b) Although c) However d) Absolutely
17. There’s no point _________ a system which is working perfectly well if you’re not having any problems with it.
a) to updated b) update c) in updating d) to updating
18. By the time the infrastructure upgrade is complete, they ______ over $800m.
a) will spend b) are going to spend c) will have spent d) will be spending
19. I ________ such a dramatic rise and fall in a company’s fortunes.
a) have never experienced c) has never experienced
b) didn’t ever experienced d) don’t experience
20. Opposition to globalization ________ stronger and stronger.
a) had grown b) grew c) have grown d) is growing
Оберіть правильний варіант (a, b, c або d), який може бути використано на місці підкресленого слова або словосполучення без зміни змісту речення.
21. The company Kenzo specializes in luxury goods.
а) markets b) products c) facilities d) prices
22. He is a pleasant colleague, and very proficient at his job.
a) skilled b) profitable c) productive d) active
23. The new computer system created a lot of interest among potential users.
a) generated b) maintained c) lost d) showed
24. When the government increased the tax on petrol, there was a consequent rise in transport costs.
a) resultant b) considerable c) continuous d) simultaneous
25. The conference discussed new trends in this field of research.
a) issues b) inventions c) tendencies d) discoveries
26. Computers have been evolving over hundreds of years.
a) developing b) appearing c) discovering d) inventing
27. Efforts are needed in all countries to avoid pollution.
a) come across b) elude c) bring about d) result in
28. It is usually more economical to buy large quantities of a product than small quantities.
a) cheaper b) more common c) easier d) more expensive
29. The book summarizes recent developments in this field.
a) concludes b) ends with c) is full of d) sums up
30. Technology is supplying science with more and more sophisticated instruments.
a) providing b) demanding c) joining d) competing
2. Прочитайте текст. Визначте, чи є наступні речення правильними (True) чи ні (False) відповідно до тексту. The Dangers of not Looking Ahead Risk management has undoubtedly moved up the corporate agenda in recent years with fears of war and terrorism being added to the usual list of business 50 worries.
Shivan Subramaniam, the Chairman and Chief Executive of FM Global, a commercial and industrial property insurer, says, “Corporations are operating in a turbulent world where businesses are seeking growth through globalization, out-sourcing, consolidation, just-in-time delivery and cross-border supply, further increasing their potential exposure to risk.” Add regulatory, legal and labour considerations, and you begin to understand the complex nature of business risk in the 21st century. FM Global believes the majority of all loss can be prevented or minimized and this should be the first part of any disaster recovery plan. It also argues that prevention is better than cure and says there is a lot companies can do to stop such events from becoming a disaster in the first place.
However, research shows that more than one-third of the world’s leading companies are not sufficiently prepared to protect their main revenue sources and have room for improvement. To best protect cash flow, competitive position and profit, companies need to assess the potential hazards that can impact top revenue sources and make sure there is business continuity planning.
A new research report from Marsh, the world’s biggest insurance broker, found that half of European companies did not know how to manage the most significant risks to their business.
Most of Europe’s senior executives surveyed admitted that they did not have procedures in place to manage properly operational and strategic risks, which were responsible for most company failures in the twenty-first century.
The survey found that the three most significant risks, and those that businesses felt least able to manage, were:
• Increased competition
• Adverse changes in customer demand
• Reduced productivity because of staff absenteeism and turnover.
While business leaders are aware that these risks are the most threatening to their future survival and growth they are scratching their heads when it comes to protecting their businesses against them. Management processes could easily help companies identify and address these risks. Instead, too many companies take a low-level approach to risk management preferring to focus on easy-to-solve risks, such as asset protection and health and safety.
1. The companies are paying more attention to risk management nowadays.
2. Businesses face greater risks.
3. Prevention of all loss isn’t better than cure.
4. Businesses can’t evaluate risks which can affect their profits.
5. Many companies take a low-level approach to risk management.
3. Прочитайте текст. Складіть анотацію до тексту (5-7 речень).
Building Employee Commitment: An Imperative for Business Success
By Gordon L.
Джордж Гордон (англ. George Gordon, 25 лютого 1806 - 11 жовтня 1879) - британський ботанік.
The workplace is changing dramatically and demands for the highest quality of product and service is increasing. To remain competitive in the face of these pressures, employee commitment is crucial. This reality is applicable to all organizations but is of particular importance to small and medium sized businesses.
Employee behavior on the job is influenced directly – positively or negatively by his or her immediate supervisor. Positive influences are essential to strengthening employee commitment. Therefore the first step in building commitment is to improve the quality of management. Much has been written recently about the need for improving the education and training of our workforce. As important as this is, at least equal emphasis must be given to improving the quality of management if business is to succeed in achieving greater employee commitment and thereby its profitability.
The benefits of having the best trained workers using the most advanced technology can be nullified by poor people management practices by managers. Management skills which sufficed in the past are not adequate to meet the challenges facing business today.
In many organizations there is a growing commitment gap – a widening split between the expectations of employers and what workers are prepared to do. There are a number of reasons for this erosion of employee commitment; the most common one being a failure of management in some way or another. To succeed in the face of increasing competition, a business needs improved productivity at all levels. This requires the enthusiastic commitment of all employees which can only be achieved through better management practices.
Businesses need good people to succeed. Failure on the part of owners or senior leaders to ensure their managers and supervisors are trained and function effectively can lead to the loss of valued employees because the best employees are attracted to employers who place a premium on good people management.
The second key to success, namely customer service, cannot be achieved without dedicated and committed employees. It is the order clerks, customer service representatives, receptionists, and drivers who interact most with the customers. They relate to them in a manner consistent with how they themselves are managed.
Properly managed employees can be motivated to achieve excellence in any area of a business. They will contribute willingly, and will do more than expected if they are managed well. Extraordinary results can be achieved by ordinary people if management does its job properly. Managing a business today is difficult enough without forfeiting a competitive advantage by lack of attention to its most valuable asset – its people.
It therefore follows that all organizations should give a high priority to its people management practices if they hope to success and prosper in the face of global competition and consumer demand for the highest quality of product and/or service.
From http://www.mansis.com/page1218.htm (9/6/2009)