Первая страница
Наша команда
Контакты
О нас

    Головна сторінка



Навчально-методичний посібник з англійської мови

Навчально-методичний посібник з англійської мови




Сторінка1/15
Дата конвертації16.03.2017
Розмір2 Mb.
ТипНавчально-методичний посібник
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15











УДК 802.0(076.5) ББКШ 143.21-923.2 А 28

Автори: О.М. Акмалдінова, Л.В. Будко, М.В. Карпенко, О.Ю. Кравчук, С.І. Ткаченко

Рецензента: канд. філол. наук, доц., проректор Київського гуманітарного інституту J. М. Іонова; канд. філол. наук, доц., зав. кафедрою української та іноземних мов Київського універ­ситету економіки Є.Г.Ганиш

Акмалдінова О.М. та ін.

AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE DESIGN: Навч. посіб. /

А 28 Акмалдінова О.М., Будко Л.В., Карпенко М.В. та ін. - К.: НАУ, 2002.-204 с.

ISBN 966-598-106-4

Гриф надано Міністерством освіта і науки України, лист за № 14/18.2-1522 від 15 липня 2002 р.

Посібник містить одинадцять тематичних блоків з навчальними текстами, комплексом фонетичних, граматичних і лексичних вправ та термінологічний словник.

Призначений для студентів вищих навчальних закладів.


ISBN 966-598-106-4





Передмова

Навчально-методичний посібник з англійської мови “Aircraft and Engine Design” призначений для роботи як в аудиторії, так і для самостійної роботи студентів І курсу всіх факультетів.

Посібник складається з одинадцяти розділів, які вміщують тексти, діалоги, лексичні та граматичні вправи на введення, закріплення, контроль засвоєння навчального матеріалу, малюнки, схеми, глосарій основних термінів, який може бути використаний як мовний матеріал для перекладу та опису понять.

ВІ розділі дається огляд та загальна характеристика основних конструктивних частин літака, а П - VI розділи присвячуються детальному ознайомленню та опису кожної частини літака: І - Principle Structural Units of the Airplane, П - Fuselage, ПІ - Wing, IV - fail Unit, V - Landing Gear, VI - Power Plant. VTI - X розділи надають спеціальну сучасну інформацію про основні компоненти газотурбінних двигунів, а в останньому розділі описуються всі типи двигунів, їх конструкції та функції.

Тексти супроводжуються словниками спеціальних термінів, важких для розуміння слів та словосполучень. Термінологічні словники допоможуть студентам перекладати тексти, пов’язані з авіаційною лексикою. Післятекстові вправи дають змогу краще засвоїти не тільки специфічні терміни та правила словобудування, а й такі важливі розділи англійської граматики, як Active and Passive Voice, Simple, Progressive and Perfect Tenses, Modals, Verbals,

I /Affirmative, Interrogative and Negative sentences.

Лексичні вправи включають завдання на підбір ухраїнсько- I англійських термонологічних еквівалентів, синонімів, антонімів,

І складання та переклад термінологічних словосполучень, переклад ланцюжків” спів з іменниками у функції лівого означення, переклад І багатозначних слів, на розвиток комунікативних навичок висловлювання, узагальнення та аргументації, проведення дискусій І та рольових ігор.

Навчальний матеріал взято з оригінальних журналів “Flight”, “Interavia”, “Aircraft Design and Maintenance” та ін.

Unit 1. PRINCIPAL STRUCTURAL UNITS OF THE AIRPLANE

Dialogue



T. We’ll consider Are principal structural units of the airplane. Look at the picture (Fig. 1.1). Ibis is an airplane.







Figure 1.1

T. Do you know the meaning of the word ‘airplane’?

S. Yes, I do. It is‘літак’.

T. You are right There are some words in the English language which

have the same meaning. They are aircraft, airliner and aeroplane, plane, for short.

S. What does the airplane consist of?

T. The airplane consists of five principal structural units: the fuselage,

the wing, the tail unit, the landing gear and the power plant. The wing means ‘крило’. It is the main plane of die aircraft. The word 'plane' has two meanings ‘літак’ та ‘площина’.

S What is the function of the wing?

T. The function of the wing is to support an airplane in the air and to create lift.

S. What is the function of the fuselage?

T. The function of the fuselage is to cany passengers, crew, cargo, equipment and to support the wing, tail unit and engines in some designs. It also carries the landing gear.

S. What is the meaning of the word ‘crew’.

T. It is ‘екіпаж’. ‘Cargo’ means ‘вантаж’. The Ukrainian for ‘tail unit’

is ‘хвостова частина’. There are some synonyms to it They are: the tail assembly, tail, empennage, fin assembly. The word ‘engine’ means ‘двигун’. The ‘landinggear’ is ‘шасі’.

S. What is the function of the tail unit?

T. The function of the tail unit is to provide directional stability and

control of the airplane in flight.

S. What is the function of the power plant?

T. The power plant is a source of power

S. What is the function of the landing gear?

T. The landing gear supports the airplane on the ground and its function

is also to absorb shocks of landing. 1 am sure you know the meaning of the word ‘land’ and ‘landing’ means ‘посадка’.

Exercise 1. Say with the teacher:

a [ei] - plane, flame, place, same, base, change, shape, range, make, came, case;

a [ae] - canopy, hatch, passenger, cabin, panel, fan, cany, taxi, factor, land, ladder, gas;

] - airplane, aircraft, airframe, airfield, airproof, airtight, airline, airliner,

t, d + ed [id] - riveted, provided, divided, welded, located, extended, operated, accommodated;

s [ s ] - elements, flights, parts, shapes, types, rivets, compartments, arrangements, frameworks, equipments; s [ z ] - skim, rings, spars, cabins, windows, stringers, airplanes, bulkheads, longerons, members, structures; es [ iz ] - uses, sizes, noses, places, hatches, classes, fuselages, surfaces, purposes.

Exercise 2. Remember the pronunciation of the following words and translate them:

component [Kam'pounant ], configuration [kanJkjjuVe't [an ], section [ 'sekj'sn ], ftiselage ['iju -zilaj], circulation [.sekju'[ei]dn j, longeron ['(ont^aran], tonnage ['ілпісі.3 J, stringer [ 'strings ], monocoque fmonakok ], mechanic [mi 'kaeni k ], parachute ['paerMu.t j, chassis [ Jaesi ], machine [mVjr.n ], generator ['djengreitg ], calculation l,taelkju'teijan], calibration|i\9?!.i'breijan], aileron feiUnn], engineer i'enctynig], container [toan'leina], pilot ['palUt], centre ['sent* ], class [Kla'.s], navigation [„naevi'geijan].

Bxercise 3. Translate derivatives with the following word-building suffixes.

Nouns

er: designer, manufacturer, carrier, booster, container, fighter, stabilizer, trainer;

  • or: constructor, navigator, operator, elevator, generator, indicator, regulator, collector;

  • ion: combustion, construction, deflection, ignition, inspection,

instruction, reflection;

  • (3)tion: adaptation, application, classification, determination, exploration, formation, identification, installation, observation;

  • sion: corrosion, decision, division, explosion, provision;

-- (ss)ion: compression, discussion, expression, submission,

transmission;

  • mesnt: arrangement, compartment, attachment, department,

employment, equipment, movement, development;

  • ance: appearance, assistance, disturbance, guidance, performance,

insurance;

  • ence: dependence, difference, existence, occurrence, reference ,

insistence;

  • ity: activity, equality, intensity, productivity, sensitivity, accessibility, capability, controllability, flexibility, possibility, reliability, visibility, availability.

Adjectives

able: adjustable, changeable, considerable, favourable, movable,] reliable, remarkable, steerable, valuable;

  • ive: active, attractive, constructive, corrective, creative, effective,) expressive, intensive;

  • al: accidental, centrifugal, continental, experimental, formal, frontal, fundamental, global, industrial, normal, operational, orbital, sectional,] structural.

Adverbs

- ly: continuously, completely, experimentally, manually, simplyJ slowly, permanently, badly, directly, necessarily, nearly, really!

unfortunately, aerodynamically, mechanically, physically, scientifically, symmetrically, technologically, theoretically.

Exercise 4. Translate the words with prefixes having negative meanings.

anti: anti-aircraft, anti-atom, anti-gravitation, anti-icer, anti­missile, anti-rocket, anti-submarine, anticyclone, anticlockwise;

counter: counteraction, counteraircraft, counterattack,

counterblow, counterfigther, countermeasure, countermissile, counterradar, counterrocket;

de: demagnetize, deatomize, decentralize, demilitarize, depressurize, deactivate;

dis: disadvantage, disarmament, disconnection, dislocation, disorder, disorganization, discontinuance;

in: inactive, incombustible, incontrollable, incompressible, incorrect, independent, ineffective, insensitive, invisible;

ir: irregular, irrespective, irresponsible, irrelevant,

irreversible, irreparable;

non: nonatomic, nonaxial, nonlinear, nonmilitary,

nonairtight, nonstationary, nonturbulent, non-nuclear, non-standard, non-stop, non-flammable;

un: unaccelerated, unnamed, unbalanced, uncontrolled, uncorrected, unlimited, unpowered, unstabilized, unpressurized, unacceptable, uncertain, unequal, unstable, unsymmetrical.

Exercise 5. Translate the following word groups (adjective-noun-verb): wide-width-widen, broad-breadth-broaden, deep-depth-deepen, long-length-lengthen, strong-strength-strengthen, high-height-heighten, short-shortness-shorten, weak-weakness-weaken, dark-darbiess-darken.

Exercise 6. These words are used both as verbs and as nouns. Translate and remember them:

to design - design to form - form, to hatch - hatch, to control - control, to place - place, to need - need, to rivet - rivet, to weld - weld, to heat - heat, to advance - advance, to brace - brace, to stress - stress, to machine - machine, to shape - shape, to drug - drug, to shell - shell.

Exercise 7. Define the parts of speech and translate.

  1. design-designer-designed, contain-container-containable, locate-locator-Iocation, prevent-preventer-prevention, construct- constructor-construction, provide-provider-provision, divide-divider- division, arrange-arranged^arrangement, weld-welder-welding;

  2. width, strengthen, assistance, airtightness, longitudinal, principally, compartment, manufacturer, accessibility, effective, navigator, covered, consists, transversal, providing, reinforced, corrosion, performance, compression.

Exercise 8. Translate die antonyms.

  1. suitable-unsuitable, advantage-disadvantage, regular- irregular, pressunzed-unpressurized, necessary-unnecessary, usual- unusual, possible-impossible, airtight-nonairtight.

  2. longitudinal-transversal, internal-external, tensile- compressive, stationary-movable, front-rear, port-starboard, rigid-soft.

  3. to extend - to retract, to heat - to cool, to lower - to raise, to reinforce - to weaken, to push - to pull, to open - to close, to extinguish fire - to set fire, to compress - to release.

Exercise 9. Read mid translate text 1.

Text 1. Principal Structural Units of the Airplane

The airplane consists of five principal structural units: the fuselage, the wing, the tail unit, the landing gear and the power plant.

The fuselage extends from the nose to the tail of the airplane. It houses passengers, crew, cargo and equipment. It supports the wing, tail unit and sometimes engines. The fuselage also carries the landing gear.

The wings are lifting and supporting surfaces of the airplane m flight. The function of the wing is to support the airplane in the air and to create lift.

The function of the tail unit is to provide directional stability and control of the airplane in flight. The tail unit consists of two surfaces, vertical and horizontal.

The function of the power plant is to provide power for flight and to propel the airplane.

The landing gear supports the airplane on the ground and its function is to taxi the aircraft on the ground and to absorb the energy of landing.

Exercise 10. Translate word combinations with the term ‘aircraft’, civil aircraft, cargo aircraft, military aircraft, passenger aircraft, ambulance aircraft, commercial aircraft, sea aircraft, cargo-passenger aircraft, long-range aircraft, forest patrol aircraft, mail-carrying aircraft, search and rescue aircraft

Exercise 11. Translate ‘noun + noun’ word-combinations, aircraft engine, air flow, design principles, fuel tank, shock absorber, control unit, air pressure, fuselage skin, oil system, rocket engine, helicopter rotor, airplane speed, engine operation, flight condition.

Exercise 12. Match the synonyms, aircraft speed

wing source of power

tail unit undercarriage

landing gear main plane

power plant empennage

fuselage airplane

velocity central body

Exercise 13. Translate verb-combinations.

to consist of structural units, to extend from the nose to the tail, to support the wing, to carry cargo, to create lift, to provide directional stability, to control the airplane in flight, to propel the aircraft, to absorb the energy of landing, to taxi on the ground.

Exercise 14. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative.

  1. The fuselage is the central body of the airplane. 2. We divide the aeroplane into five principal structural units. 3. The power plant provides power for flight 4. The tail unit consists of two surfaces, vertical and horizontal. 5.The wing extends equally on each side of the fuselage.

Exercise 15. Say if the following statements are true or false. If they are wrong, correct diem.

  1. The airplane consists of two principal structural units. 2. The tail unit supports the wing. 3. The function of the power plant is to create lift. 4. The wings are not lifting and supporting surfaces of the airplane in flight. 5. The fuselage controls the airplane in flight.

Exercise 16. Make up sentences with the following words.

unit, tail, crew, cargo, equipment, engine, flight, lift, stability, control,

ground, landing.

Exercise 17. Answer the questions.

  1. What units does the airplane consist of? 2. What does the fuselage сшту? 3. What supports the tail unit? 4. What provides directional stability of die airplane in flight? 5. What propels the airplane?

Exercise 18. Read and translate text 2.

Text 2. Airplane Structure



The airplane, engine-driven vehicle can fly through the air supported by the action of die air against its wings. Airplanes are heavier than air. Airplanes generally share die same basic configuration - each usually has a fuselage, wing, tail, power plant, landing gear, and a set of specialized control surfaces mounted on the wing and tail.

The fuselage is the main cabin, or body of the airplane. Generally the fuselage has a cockpit section at the front end, where the pilot controls the airplane, and a cabin section. The cabin section may be designed to cany passengers, cargo, or both. In a military fighter

plane, the fuselage may house the engines, fuel, electronics, and some weapons.

All airplanes, by definition, have wings Some are nearly all wings with a very small cockpit. Others have minimal wings, or wings that seem to be merely extensions of a blended, aerodynamic fuselage, such as the space shuttle.

Most airplanes, except for flying wings, have a tail assembly attached to the rear of die fuselage, consisting of vertical and horizontal stabilizers, which look like small wings; a rudder, and elevators. The components of the tail assembly are referred to as the empennage.

All airplanes must We some type of landing gear. Modem aircraft employ brakes, «heels, and tires designed specifically for the demands of flight.


Model:




The airplane carries passengers.

The airplane serves for carrying passengers.

The airplane is used to carry passengers.

The function of the airplane istocarrv passengers.

Exercise 19. Paraphrase the sentences according to the model.


  1. The fuselage houses passengers, crew, cargo and equipment.

  1. The wings support the airplane in the air and create lift. 3. The tail unit provides directional stability and control of the airplane in flight.

  1. The landing gear supports the airplane on the ground. 5. The power j plant provides power for flight and propels the airplane.

Exercise 20. Match the terms and the definitions.


airplane



[fuselage [wings ■tail unit [power plant [landing gear
units which furnish means of supporting and steering the aircraft on the ground or water

vertical and horizontal surfaces main cabin

lifting and supporting surfaces engine-driven vehicle source of power

И

Exercise 21. Give defmitio^ro the following terns, aircraft, fuselage, wing, empennage, landing gear, power plant.


and verbs.


Exercise 22. Find in text^l jfenw>rds that may be used both as nouns

Exercise 23. Comment on text 2 using the following words.

In my opinion The point is that

To my mind The key-note of the text

I would say It is right that

As tar as this problem is concerned I don’t quite agree with

Exercise 24. Speak on:

  1. Aircraft structure.

  1. Functions of aircraft structural units.

Exercise 25. Translate text 3 in writing.

Text 3. Aircraft Performance



The aircraft performance includes dimensional data and the main flying characteristics.

Dimensional data are length, wing span, height and width. The main flying characteristics are maximum take-off weight, maximum landing and payload weight, passenger capacity or number of seats, number of crew, cargo capacity, cruising speed, flight range, flight altitude, non-stop flying time, practical ceiling or service ceiling, engine type and thrust of each engine, number of engines, take-off and landing ground run, maximum fuel capacity, etc.

The aircraft usually takes the name of the designer or manufacturer. Here are some of the aircraft designers: Antonov, flushin, Tupolev, Yakovlev. Manufacturer’s names are represented by: Boeing, Bristol, Canadair, Convair, Douglas, Lockheed, Vickers and others. Following the name of the designer or manufacturer comes a type code, known in some airlines as a class. For example: Antonov-70 (designer’s

name and type code), Douglas DC-бВ (manufacturer’s name and type code), etc.

The aircraft can be supplied in some versions: Economy- Class, Business-Class and First-Class.

Exercise 26. Copy out aviation terms from text 3.

Exercise 27. Answer the questions.

1. What dimensional data does the aircraft performance include? 2.What are the main flying characteristics? 3 The aircraft usually takes the name of the designer, doesn’t it? 4. What is the type code? 5. What versions can an aircraft be supplied in?

Exercise 28. Speak on “Aircraft performance”.

Exercise 29. Remember aircraft performance data.

7/7-200

First flight: June 12,1994 Model number: 777-200 Classification: Commercial transport

Span: 199 feet 11 inches Length: 209 feet 1 inch Gross weight: 506,000 pounds Cruising speed: 615 mph Range: 4,210 to 8,270 miles Ceiling: 37,900 feet

Power: Two 74, 500-/77,200-pound-thrust P&W 4074/4077 engines, two 74,500-/76,400-pound-thrust GE 90-75B/76B engines, or two 74,600-/76,900-pound-thrust RR Trent 875/877 engines Accommodation: 305 to 440 passengers


1L- 86



Length: 59,5 m Wingspan: 48m

AN-124

Cargo cabin dimensions: Length: 36 m
Width: 6.4 tn Height: 4.4 m km/hr


No. of engines: 4 Cruising speed: 850-900



Altitude: 10-1 lkm Range: 3,000 - 5,000

No. of seats: 350

Maximum take-off weight: 405,000kg Maximum cargo capacity. 150,000kg km

Engine type and power: D-l
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15



  • UNITS OF THE AIRPLANE