Note: kg - kilogram; rpm - revolutions per minute; h- hour.
Exercise 17.Give Ukrainian equivalents.
maximum continuous power, take off power, rotational speed, specific fuel consumption, cruising power, thrust, engine diameter, engine length, inlet diameter, engine dry mass, compressor type, compressor stages, number of high-pressure stages, number of low- pressure stages, turbine stages, reverser mass, total compression ratio, turbine nozzle, engine starting, fuel used, engine service life, overhaul.
Exercise 18. Translate text 2 in a written form and entitle it.
The A-310 CFM-56-5 engines are high bypass ratio turbofan engines with reduced fuel consumption, maintenance cost and noise level. A330s can be powered by engines from all three major manufactures (CF6-80E1 series from General Electric, PW4000 series from Pratt & Whitney, Trent 700 series from Rolls Royce), with high by-pass ratio, low fuel burn, low noise and low emission technology. The thrust of CF6-80 is 70,0001b/72,0001b.
The L-1011-500 TriStar is powered by the Rolls-Royce 3RB211- 524 Bs. It is a three-shaft, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The advanced technology high bypass ratio turbofan engines offer two outstanding features: economic fuel consumption and the low- noise/low-smoke emission characteristics. The thrust is 50,0001b.
The Domier 328PW119B turboprop engine has two centrifugal impellers driven by independent axial turbines, a reverse flow annular combustor and a two-stage power turbine which provides the drive for the reduction gearbox. Concentric shafts connect the two-stage power turbine to the gearbox and the single stage LP and HP turbines to the impellers without the need for intershaft bearings.
The 737 airplanes are powered by two wing-mounted CFM56-3 high bypass ratio turbofan engine at several thrust ratings. The power plant consists of the inlet cowl, basic engine, thrust reverser and exhaust plug.
The AN-72 is powered by two Д-36 turbofan engines rated at up to 6500kg takeoff thrust
The AN-28 is powered by two AH-20D turboprop engines. They enable the aircraft to operate successfully on short runways under various climates assuring in-flight reliability and safety.
Exercise 19. Read, translate and entitle text 3. Put 5 key questions.
GE90: The highest thrust engine in the industry, the GE90 powers tiie Boeing 777. The company is currently developing the GE90-115B as the exclusive engine for the longer-range Boeing 777 aircraft scheduled to enter service in 2004.
CF6: CF6 engines lead the industry as the powerplant of choice for wide-body aircraft such as the Airbus Industrie A300, A310, A330, Boeing 747, 767, and MD-11 wide-body aircraft. GEAE recently introduced higher thrust variants of the CF6-80C and CF6-80E engines for the Boeing 767-400ER and the Airbus A330-200/-300, respectively.
CFM56: The CFM56 product line includes six engine models spanning the thrust range from 18,500 to 34,000 pounds thrust and power the single-aisle Airbus Industrie A320 and long-range A-340 aircraft and the Boeing Classic and Next-Generation 737 aircraft. Today, CFM is the world’s leading supplier of commercial transport jet engines with firm orders for nearly 14,000 engines for nearly 300 customers.
CF34: The CF34 has evolved from being a corporate jet engine in the nearly 1980s to helping create the fast-growing regional jet aircraft market today. The newest models, the GF34-8 and CF34-10, are the engines of choice for virtually every regional airliner within their thrust class.
CT7: The CT7 is the most widely used turboprop engine in its class, powering helicopters, regional airliners, and multipurpose aircraft worldwide. The CT7-8 turboshaft engine is scheduled for certification on S-92 helicopter in early 2002.
Exercise 20. Make sure you remember the names of aircraft engines.
Exercise 21. Translate text 4 in writing and entitle it.
The growing demand for cheaper, larger, faster and more capable helicopters continues to drive turboshaft development at a rapid pace. Much of the search for cutting-edge turboshaft technology in the USA is conducted by the Defense Department-led Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology programme, which has goals of increasing the kilowatt/weight ratio by 120% relative to the late 1980s production standard. It also aims to cut specific fuel consumption by 40% and production and maintenance costs by 35%.
New technologies, advanced materials and maintenance procedures can enable major improvements in fleet
maintainability / reliability, plus a major reduction in life cycle costs.
Exercise 22. Write out the new terms referring to the topic “Aircraft Engines”.
Exercise 23. Make up the plan of the topic “Aircraft Engines”.
Exercise 24. Make a report on the topic “Aircraft Engines”.
Exercise 25. Speak on:
Types of Aircraft Engines.
Main Engine Data.
Exercise 26. Remember the meaning of the following words: advantage - перевага augment- збільшувати availability - наявність booster - нагнітач bum - спалювати, горіти capability - здатність escape - аварійне покидання літака exhaust - випускати; випуск expell - викидати; виштовхувати hit - вдарятися; зіштовхуватися ignition - спалахування ingestion - засмоктування; запалення mixture - суміш; змішування performance - характеристика propulsion - тяга; рух вперед; приведення до руху ram - швидкісний тиск rely - розраховувати; базуватися remainder - залишок
shield - захищати; прикривати; екранувати
shroud - обід; бандаж; скріплювати кінці лопаток ободом
The most common type of jet engines is the turbojet The turbojet relies entirely upon jet thrust to develop its propulsive force. The turbojet draws air into a compressor, usually consisting of several stages. This compressed air then enters a combustion chamber where fuel is added and the mixture is burned. The hot gas is then expelled, producing thrust.
Turbine blades in jet engines suck air into the engine and compress it prior to ignition, and die escaping gases drive another set of turbine blades to provide the necessary propulsion for the ingestion and compressor blades. When a gas turbine engine has a propeller on the same shaft with a compressor, it becomes a turboprop. A propeller provides most of the propulsive thrust. The turboprop combines features of both piston and turbojet engines. It provides better performance at lower speeds and altitudes than would be possible with a jet engine.
The operating ceilings of turboprop aircraft are somewhat lower than those of pure jets. On the other hand, the propeller can produce great amounts of thrust instantly at low altitudes resulting in shorter take-off and landing capabilities, the latter because of the availability of reverse thrust which also permits turboprop aircraft to taxi backwards.
The turbofan engine operates on the same principle as the turboprop engine. In turbofan engines, the propeller is a shrouded fan which directs part of the air around the outside of the turbines and combustion chambers to produce “cold” thrust. The remainder of the air gpes through the engine and is expelled in normal fashion.
Advantages of the turbofan include good performance at low altitudes and the shielding of the exhaust gases from the engine inside a circle of cooler air, thus reducing the noise which is created by hot exhaust gases hitting a cold atmosphere abruptly.
A ramjet differs from a turbojet or turbofan in having no moving parts. A ramjet cannot operate from rest, but it is suitable for augmenting thrust on a turbojet engine, or as the main power source when rocket boosters can be provided for take-off.
In a turboshaft engine the turbine has another drive shaft, usually a rotor drive shaft of a helicopter. So turboshaft engines are widely used in helicopters.
Exercise 28. Translate the verbs and their derivatives.
to ignite - ignition to move - movement
to ingest - ingestion to accomplish - accomplishment
to direct - direction to require - requirement
to retract - retraction to attach - attachment
to ignite - igniter to direct - director
to cool - cooler to create - creator
to reduce - reducer to augment - augmentor
to produce - producer to separate - separator
Exercise 29. Determine parts of speech and translate.
Exercise 37. Make up sentences with each of the following verb- combinations.
to draw air, to enter a combustion chamber, to produce thrust, to suck air into the engine, to provide the necessary propulsion for the ingestion, to combine features of piston and turbojet engines, to provide better performance at lower speeds, to taxi backwards, to direct a part of air, to rely upon jet thrust, to develop propulsive force, to reduce noise, to operate on the same principle.
Exercise 38. Match the definitions in the left column and the
terms in the right column.
an engine having no moving parts a jet
-an engine operating on the jet thrust a turbofan
an engine having a propeller on the a turboshaft
same shaft with a compressor a ramjet
an engine combining features of both a a turboprop piston and turbojet engine
The new era in aviation was opened bv the introduction of jet engines.
Both jet engines and piston engines are used in aviation.
In turbofan engines the propulsive force is provided by fans.
The compressor is driven by a turbine.
Turboshaft engines are widely used in helicopters.
Exercise 44. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form.
In 1885 the first airplane (to power) by a steam engine.
In a short time piston engines (to replace) by jet engines.
A new era in aviation (to open) with the introduction of jet engines.
The steady progress of aviation (to connect) with the development of aircraft power plants.
The compressed air (to mix) with fuel.
Jet engines (to use) in civil aviation.
The energy of heated gases, in the form of velocity (to take) by a turbine.
This energy (to use) for driving the engine shaft.
All turbofan engines (to call) by-pass engines.
A ram pressure (to create) when the airplane moves through the air at a great speed.
Exercise 45. Change the following sentences into Passive Voice using the model.
Model: The power plant provides power for flight.
The power for flight is provided by the power plant.
In turbofen engines the fen provides the propulsive force.
The introduction of jet engines opened the new era in aviation.
The electric spark ignites the compressed mixture.
The early aircraft used gasoline as fuel.
The turbine takes the energy of heated gases, in the form of velocity.
Jet engines completely replaced piston engines.
The turbofen engine obtains additional energy from the gases passing through the exhaust cone.
The engine-mounted hydraulic system of automatic control ensures optimum control of major engine parameters.
This shaft (hives a propeller as well as other engine accessories.
Helicopters use turboshaft engines.
Exercise 46. Translate into English.
1. Реактивні двигуни широко використовуються в цивільній авіації. 2. Турбореактивний двигун розвиває тягу повністю за рахунок реактивного сопла. 3. Повітряний гвинт знаходиться на одному валу з компресором. 4. У турбогвинтовому двигуні основна частина тяги створюється гвинтами і тільки від 10 до 25 % - реактивним соплом. 5. У турбовентиляторному двигуні замість повітряного гвинта використовують вентилятор, який обертається зі швидкістю турбіни.