T. Now, we shall consider the fuselage construction. Look at the picture (FigJI.l.).
T. This is the fuselage. The fuselage is the largest element of the airplane. The fuselage is the rigid framework. ‘Rigid framework’ is ‘жорсткий каркас’. The rigid framework is built of tubular steel and metal rings. ‘Tubular steel’ means ‘трубчата сталь’.
So, what is it built of?
S. The fuselage is the rigid framework built of tubular steel and metal
Ї. Quite right. The framework is covered with a skin. ‘Skin’ means ‘обшивка’. The skin should be thin-walled. “A thin-walled skin’ is ‘тонкостінна обшивка’. I am sure that you know what material the skin may be made of.
S. The skin may be made of fabric, metal, glass or other material.
T. You are right. The framework itself consists of longitudinal and
transversal members The longitudinal members are stringers.
T. Look at this picture (Fig.II.2).
Figure П.2 T. You can see transversal members. Transversal members are formers and bulkheads. ‘ Former’ means ‘шпангоут’. ‘Bulkhead’ is ‘переборка’. Formers and bulkheads are used to maintain the circular cross section of the fuselage. ‘Circular cross section’ is ‘круглий профіль’. The formers serve as a support for stringers and skin. Longitudinal and transversal members will make the contour of the fuselage.
T. These are longitudinal members. They are stringers. Stringers serve to stiffen the skin. ‘To stiffen’ means ‘надавати жорсткості’.
T. Look at this picture (Fig.n.3).
Figure Ц.З bulkhead Exercise 1. Remember the pronunciation and meanings of the following words:
The fuselage is the central body of the airplane and the largest element of it. The fuselage extends from the nose to the mil of the I machine. The fuselage is divided into the front fuselage, centre fuselage I and rear fuselage.
I location and outline. All the fuselages are round structures and have streamlined shape to reduce the drag. They vary principally in size and in the arrangement of the compartments.
The fuselage is a rigid framework built of tubular steel and metal rings. The framework is covered with a thin-walled skin. The framework consists of longitudinal members (stringers) and transversal members ( fontiers and bulkheads). Stringers serve to stiffen the skin. Formers and bulkheads are used to maintain the circular cross section of the fuselage. These longitudinal and transversal members will make the contour of the fuselage. The fuselages of modem aircraft are of all- metal construction.
There are two main types of the fuselage construction: monocoque design mid semimonocoque. Monocoque is the structure made in the form of a shell. The french word “monocoque” means “ single shell”. It is a hollow construction. In the monocoque design the skin provides its own structural strength, eliminating the need for internal bracings.
The longitudinal members are held apart by bulkheads and formers. Such a construction is called the semimonocoque type of the construction. The reinforced monocoque design uses complete metal formers, normally of welded tubular steel, covered with a metal skin.
The fuselage contains the cockpit or flight deck, passenger cabins, baggage compartments and equipment Pressurized cabins are used in modem aircraft. The cabin windows, canopy, hatches and doors are the most vital parts of the pressurized cabin.
Exercise 3. Translate word combinations with the terms ‘fuselage’, ‘cabin’, ‘deck’.
Exercise б. Fill in this table using the words below.
Reinforced monocoque design
stringers, bulkheads, formers, metal formers, welded tubular steel, me skin, single shell, hollow construction, structural strength, need internal bracing, round structure, rigid framework, thin-walled skin, i metal construction.
Exercise 7. Make a brief written summary of monocc semimonocoque and reinforced designs.
Exercise 8. Copy out aviation terms from text 1.
Exercise 9. Explain the difference between the words.
helicopter and airplane; former and stringer; missile and rocka monocoque and semimonocoque; hatch and door; fighter and саггЦ rudder and elevator; submarine and launcher.
Exercise 10. Make up one sentence with each of the following verb- combinations.
I to have a streamlined shape, to reduce the drag, to vary in size, to be similar in design, to be of all-metal construction, to hold apart, to reinforce the skin, to provide structural strength, to use formers, to
I contain the cockpit
Exercise 11. Use the correct form of the verb “ to be “.
What... divided into the front fuselage, central fuselage and rear
As far as the fuselage ... concerned it... divided into 3 parts.
... there two main types of the fuselage?
What... “monocoque” ?
It . , a hollow construction.
... this a streamlined shape?
Yes, it... .
What... called the semimonocoque design?
The cabin windows, canopy, hatches and doors... die most vital parts of the pressurized cabin.
... these longitudinal members held apart by bulkheads and
.. stringers riveted to the skin to reinforce it?
0 What... “singleshell”?
Exercise 12. Complete the following sentences with the words given in brackets.
All fuselages are round structures and have ... (обтічна форма). 2. The fuselages vary principally in size and in the arrangemen of . ..(відсіки). 3. The fiiselage is a rigid framework built of tubulai
steel and... (металеві кільця). 4. The framework is covered with... (тонкостінна обшивка). 5. The framework consists of longitudina members (stringers) and transversal members (...) (перегородки n шпангоути). 6. The fuselages of modem aircraft are of (суцільнометалева конструкція). 7. There are two types of the fuselage construction: monocoque design and ... (напівмонококов* конструкція). 8. In the monocoque design the skin provides its owr structural strength, eliminating die need for internal ... (розтяжка). 9. The french word “monocoque” means ... (оболонка). 10. The mos vital parts of the pressurized cabin are the cabin windows, doors,... ara ... (ліхтар кабіни екіпажу та люки).
Exercise 13. Put questions to the underlined words.
All fuselages are round structures.
All fuselages have a streamlined shape to reduce the drag.
All fuselages vary principally in size and in the arrangement of 1 compartments.
hi the monocoque design the skin provides its own st strength.
The reinforced monocoque design uses a complete metal forme normally of welded tubular steel.
The longitudinal members are held apart by bulkheads and formers.]
The fuselage is of truly circular cross section over most of its ler
1. Стрингери та шпангоути складають контур фюзеляжу. 2 Стрингери необхідні для підсилення обшивки. З.Шпангоути служать для підтримки стрингерів та обшивки. 4. Існують два основних типи конструкцій фюзеляжу: монококова та
напівмонокова. 5. Напівмонококова конструкція фюзеляжу широко застосовується в сучасному виробництві, оскільки вона підсилює міцність конструкції, використовуючи внутрішні силові елемента - стрингери та шпангоути, б. У монококовій конструкції обшивка сама забезпечує міцність конструкції, виключаючи потребу у І внутрішніх розчалках. 7. Основною перевагою монококової f конструкції є додаткове місце, необхідне для розміщення вантажу І та людей, оскільки така конструкція є пустотілою. 8. У посиленій [монококовій конструкції застосовуються суцільнометалеві шпангоути, як правило, зі зварної трубчатої сталі, вкриті металевою обшивкою. 9. Всі комп’ютери та навігаційні комплекси [встановлюються в кабіні пілота. 10. Герметичні кабіни [застосовуються для забезпечення життєвих умов для екіпажу та І пасажирів на великих висотах польоту.
lExercise 15. Translate.
1. The monocoque fuselage is made of stressed skin and frames.
The monocoque fuselage is a type of construction of a fuselage in which all or most of the stresses are carried by the skin. 3. Monocoque fuselage may incorporate frames (formers) but not longitudinal nembers as stringers. 4. Semimonocoque fuselage is a fuselage in which longitudinal members (beams and stringers) and frames (formers) reinforce the skin and help to carry the stresses. 5. The frames (formers) maintain the shape of the cross-section of the fuselage.
Exercise 16. Answer the questions,
1. What principal structural unit of the airplane extends from the nose to the tail of the machine? 2. What does the fuselage have a
streamlined shape for? 3. Are all die fuselages round structure
What land of skin is the framework covered with? 5. The reinfo monocoque design uses complete metal formers, doesn't it? 6. types of the fuselage construction are there? 7. What does the wc “monocoque” mean? 8. What compartments does the fuselage contain] 9. What is the semimonocoque design? 10. What are the most vital pa of the pressurized cabin?
Exercise 17. Read and entitle text 2.
The 737 is a metal low-wing monoplane with full cantile wing and tail surfaces, semi-monocoque fuselage and fully landing gear. Its two power plants are located under the wings on: struts. The fuselage is a pressurized semi-monocoque structure forme from circumferential frames, longitudinal stringers and skin “waffle” doublers, which act as tear stoppers. Pressure bulkheads at) forward and aft ends of the fuselage form a pressure vessel.
The fuselage is divided horizontally by the floor, which built up from beams and panels. The primary materials are air alloys. The floor panels are fiberglass aced honeycomb.
Exercise 18. Read, translate and put questions to the subject of < sentence.
The A-310 is a widebody transport powered by two turbof engines. CFM-56-5 engines are installed under the wing. Tv additional fuel tanks are installed in the rear cargo hold to provide additional range. The fuselage has a circular cross section. Basic structure consists of left, center and right wing boxes. The main land gear is a simple, dual-wheel, conventional landing gear designed increase operational reliability and minimize maintenance.
Text 3. The 737-400 Fuselage Sections
Section 1 contains the radar antenna behind a fiberglass- I honeycomb fairing, hinged at the top. Aft of die pressure bulkhead, ■above the floor, are the flight deck and forward entry and galley doors. |Below the floor are the nose gear wheel well, forward eirstair and its эог, and the electronic equipment bay. This section has two lower ccess doors.
Section 2 contains the passenger cabin, with windows etween the frames, and the forward cargo compartment, with a door on
; right side.
Section 3 contains the center and aft portions of the passenger эт with windows between the frames, two overwing escape hatches nd aft entry and galley doors. The 737-400 has four overwing escape itches. The space below the floor includes the wing center section (fuel tank), air-conditioning bays, wheel well, hydraulic bay and aft ?o compartment with a door on the right side. This section «nates at tire aft pressure bulkhead.
Section 4 contains the auxiliary power unit (APU) and izontal stabilizer truss. Access to this section is through a door on і left side, aft of which is the APU access door and APU exhaust.
[ Exercise 20. Read, translate and make the plan of text 4.
Text 4. Passenger Cabin
The passenger cabin must be as comfortable as possible in ier that passengers would not be tired even if the flight is long.
The comfort of passenger cabin includes the following items: efficient specific cabin volume (volume per passenger), comfortable bats, convenient arrangement and equipment of buffets, galley, lardrobes and toilets, good soundproofing, lowering the noise level of
the cabin to available limit, oxygen feeding and maintaining of pressure, sufficient lighting (natural and artificial).
Passenger’s comfort is achieved only when all above mentioned requirements are met.
The size of the passenger cabin is determined by volume ; passenger, hi modem aircraft specific volume is 1.4-2 cu.m, designer must provide sufficient height of a cabin, width of aj and such a seat arrangement which gives a free access to seat st and enough room for passenger’s legs.
Seats may be arranged four, five and even six abreast (t! seats on either side of file central gangway).
Let’s now consider the layout of interior compartments, give passengers an impression of roominess it is necessary to desfc any ‘tube’ effect. To meet this requirement rectangular roof panels, к panels along the upper sidewalls and several partial bulkheads are use The cabin can be divided into several parts: two or three passe cabins and saloons, lobby, wardrobes, buffet or galley, toilet rc cargo holds.
Effective heating and ventilation as well as oxygen fee and maintaining normal air pressure me usually achieved with conditioning systems. Modem airliners are provided with hermetica sealed cabins with the normal air pressure.
Good soundproofing is achieved by using special panelsi fabrics. Luggage holds are usually arranged in the fuselage nose and 1 rear. Two-decked airliners have under-floor cargo holds. Someth they have an unpressurized baggage compartments to the rear of i cabin with a large external door. In some airliners the seats in the re compartments are made easily removable.
Exercise 21. Read, translate and retell text 5.
The cockpit is one of compartments of the fuselage sit its front part It is a working place of the crew. It accommodates
nbers. Apart from crew members the cockpit houses computers, jpsontrols, instruments, systems and some equipment.
The modem cockpit must be comfortable and spacious. It |inust provide forward-facing (looking) seating arrangement for the j crew Seats are designed for comfort, convenience and efficiency. They must be reclined and adjusted in horizontal and vertical directions. They [are usually installed on a track to provide an easy exit and entry for the [crew, It is recommended that seats for the crew should have sheep-skin [covers. Each seat must be provided with a proper harness.
A glass part of the cockpit is called a canopy. It includes two |kinds of windows front windows and side windows. Front windows sist of a windscreen (windshield) and eye-brow windows. The ldshield must be very strong It is made of a special kind of glass ich has good optical and aerodynamic characteristics. It must be Dvided with a large-scope wipers mid be large enough to provide good sion (view) for the crew. It is electrically heated to prevent ice and fog nation. Side windows are divided into sliding side windows (left and it) and fixed side windows (left and right),
lercise 22. Speak on:
Longitudinal and transversal members of the fuselage construction. Types of fuselage construction.