lar, triangular, elliptical and ; back. “To sweep” means - іляти’, ”back” -‘назад’,
you know what the amount of the sweepback angle depends upon?
amount of the sweepback angle depends upon the type of the lane and its design, doesn’t it?
absolutely. So the sweepback angle is the angle between the wing a perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the airplane. And what sweeepback angle” is 1 стрілоподібності’.
S. High-speed jet aircraft has a greater sweepback angle, I guess.
T. That’s right. Now let’s speak about the dihedral angle. It is the at between the wing and a horizontal plane (“the dihedral angle” -1 поперечного V крила). The dihedral angle may be positive negative. The angle of attack is the angle between the chord of1 wing and the direction of the relative wind. The chord is the dis between the leading edge and the trailing edge of the wing. As know the function of die wing is to provide lift. Sometimes lift shoi) be increased. How can lift be increased?
S. By increasing the angle of attack.
T. Quite right. There is another wing angle. It is die angle of incidence кут установки крила. It is the angle between the longitudinal axis j the airplane and the chord of the wing. The angle of incidence! fixed. It cannot be changed by the pilot. The airplane may parasol, low-wing, mid-wing and high-wing constructions. (FigJDlJ
The number of die wings may vary. Now, tell me what the airpl with one wing is called?
S. It is called a monoplane.
T. What is the airplane with two wings called?
S. In Ukrainian it is " біплан".
T. In English it is a "biplane". A multiplane has many wings, attention to the word beginning with "multi-". It means "many", you translate the word "multinational"?
T. You are right. The wing may be made of wood, fabric or metal depends on the design of the aircraft.
Read and translate text 1.
Text 1. Wing
Hie wing is the principal structural unit of the airplane. The jjon of the wing is to provide lift and to support the airplane in the s wing has a leading edge, trailing edge, tips and a root Hie shape of tiie wing may be rectangular, triangular, elliptical and t back. The amount of the sweepback angle depends upon the type of riane mid its design. The sweepback angle is the angle between the and a perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the airplane. High- jet aircraft have a greater sweepback angle. The dihedral angle is le between the wing and a horizontal plane. The angle of attack is le between the chord of the wing and the direction of the relative When an airplane’s angle of attack is so steep that the airflow over pper surface of the wing breaks, lift is lost and drag increases. The і is the distance between the leading edge and the trailing edge of the The angle of incidence is the angle between the longitudinal axis of ilane and the chord of the wing. It is measured by the angle at the wing is attached to the fuselage. The angle of incidence is It cannot be changed by the pilot.
: The position of tire wing may vary. The airplane may have a pa- | high-wmg, mid-wing and low-wing construction.
іе airplanes may be divided according to the number of wings nonoplanes, biplanes and multiplanes. Monoplanes have one wing, aes have two wings and multiplanes have many wings.
The wing may be made of wood, fabric, metal or composite al which depends on the design of the airplane.
rise 4. Translate the following universal words without a dictionary : plane, lift, chord, metal, distance, design, perpendicular, elliptical, 5site, speed, type, component, centre, mechanical, result, ature.
rise 5. Find in text 1 nine words that can be used both as a noun and Give their translation.
Exercise 7. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following
structural unit, leading edge, trailing edge, wing tip, root, sha the wing, airfoil, parasol, high-wing, mid-wing, low-wing, swe angle, dihedral angle, rectangular, triangular, steep angle, longit axis, horizontal plane, wing chord, relative wind, angle of incic design of the airplane.
Exercise 8. Answer the questions on text 1.
1. Is the wing principal structural unit of the airplane? 2. the function of the wing? 3. Does the wing consist of the leading i trailing edge, tips and the root? 4. What shapes can the wing 5. What is a sweepback angle? 6. What is a dihedral angle? 7. What j angle of attack? 8. Does the position of the wing vary? 9. What 1 airplanes do we distinguish according to the number of wings? 10. is the wing usually made of?
Exercise 9. .Remember the active vocabulary.
longeron - лонжерон
extend out - виходити зовні
main plane - крило, несуча площина
port (starboard) mam plane - ліве (праве) налівкрило
aileron - елерон
box type wing - кршю коробчатого типу multi-spar wing - багатолонжеронне крило sandwich type - багатошаровий тип airfoil - аеродинамічна поверхня (профіль)
> members - елементи, розміщені вздовж крила se members - елементи, розміщені вздовж хорди І лобовий опір I skin - працююча обшивка зтЬ core - сотовий заповнювач іеі - центроплан
10. Read and translate dialogue 2.
main structural member of the wing is a wing spar or a beam. Dok at the picture (Fig. ПІ.4), please. What is this?
і a spar.
spar” and "die beam" are synonyms. They mean “ лонжерон”, spar runs along the length of the wing from the fuselage to the ►of the wing. Do you remember the word "long"?
, you are right. It is an adjective; And the word "length" is a noun, means "довжина”. Now translate “it runs along the length”, se.
і проходять вздовж.
> right. Some designs have one spar and some have two. The wing many spars is called a multispar wing. Can you translate the "multispar? голонжеронний. aember, we have come across such words as "multiplane" and ltinational". Now we know one more ward - "multispar". What is > function of the spar?
’ function of the spar is to cany the main wing load , you are right. Another structural member of the wing
is a nb (Fig.in.5). The rib means "нервюра’. The ribs are attached i the spars. They are chord-wise members, forming the contour of 1 wing.
They are like wing cross-section. The skin covers the wing. Can skin carry air loads?
S. I think it can.
T. In case the skin carries the load it is called a stressed-skin constructic The skin is supported by stringers (Fig.UI.6.) In Ukrainian it soi the same - ‘стрінгер’. What direction do the stringers go?
S. They go parallel to the spars.
T. The stringers reinforce the skin. ‘To reinforce’ means ‘підсилюват
Exercise 11. Read and translate text 2.
Text 2. Structural Members of the Wing
The main structural member of the wing is the wing spar or be runs along the length of the wing from the fuselage to the tip of the ’ Some designs have one spar and some have two. They may be mad wood or metal. It depends on the construction. The wing with many>, is called a multispar wing. The function of the spar is to carry the: air load.
The ribs are attached to the spars. They run from the leading the trailing edge, The ribs provide the shape of the wing and ca loads.The skin covers the wing. In case the akin carries the lc called a stressed skin construction. The skin is supported by the st They go parallel and between the spars and reinforce the skin.
Translate the verb - noun pairs: to unite - unit, to provide - provision, to depend - dependence, to
- direction, to lose -loss, to lead - leader, to measure - ement, to attach - attachment, to vary- variety, to divide - to carry-carrier.
Translate the word combinations:
depend on the construction, to reinforce the skin, to carry the bad, to go parallel to the spars, to be made of wood, to be made of pto be called a multispar wing, to be attached to the spar.
Translate into English.
Лонжерони розташовані вздовж крила від фюзеляжу до вки крипа. 2. Вони можуть бути виготовлені з дерева або 3. Функція лонжерона - нести основне навантаження, іірукція крила залежить від призначення літака. 5. Нервюри |ься до лонжерона 6. Вони несуть навантаження. 7. Стрінгери ють обшивку.
і 15. Put questions to the subject.
IThe stringers reinforce the skin. What reinforces the skin? pi. The ribs form the shape of the wing. 2. The spars ran along jth of the wing. 3. The spars may be made of metal. 4. The Ыgo parallel to the spars. 5. The skin covers the wing.
■ 16. Put questions to the underlined part of the sentences.
I wing structure consists of left, center and right wing boxes.
I boxes are built up from front spar, rear spar, stringers, ribs and bad bottom skins.
Meed skin section may be repaired quickly by it’s replacement, в 17.Remember the active vocabulary.
Ip - простий закрилок b - щиток
[flap - закрилок Фаулера slotted flap - щільовий закрилок auxiliary - допоміжний hinge - шарнір aileron - елерон to take off - злітати landing - посадка, приземлення weight - вага additional - додатковий climb - набирання висоти descent -зниження
Exercise 1S. Read and translate dialogue 3.
T. Look at the picture (Fig.IIL7.).These are flaps. The flaps are an surfaces of the wing. The word "auxiliary" means “допої What are the flaps hinged to?
S. They are hinged to the hailing edge of the wing.
T. Are the flaps located between the ailerons and the fuselage?
S. Yes, they are. Figure Ш.7'
T. Now let us consider the function of the flaps. When do the operate?
S. The flaps operate during take-off and landing.
T. Yes, you are right. In these cases it is necessary to have enough! support the weight of the airplane. Do the flaps provide the main 1
S. No, I think they provide the additional lift.
T. Yes, they do. What happens with the drag?
S. It is increasing.
T. Is it always useful?
S. The drag is useful only during landing.
T. Yes, quite right For taking-off the flap angle should be small: increased lift is obtained with little increase in drag. What he obtain little increase in drag?
S. A small flap angle helps to obtain little increase in drag, I guess. I
you are right in landing flaps play a very important part, as in the increased drag is of great importance. When is drag con- ile?
; is considerable when the flap is well down, re can see that the flaps permit slower and safer flight, lower speeds, steeper angles of descent. "Permit" means їоляти”. The word "safe" means “безпечний”, “steep angle” - кут. “Descent” is opposite to "ciimb" ."Descent" means кення”. What does the word "climb" mean?
|limb” means “набирати висоту”
ation to the translation of the words: slower -повільніше, більш безпечний, lower - нижчий, steeper - крутіший, і flaps permit slower landing speeds? ey do.
fight. That is why die flaps are deflected during landing. They landing on short fields. We may classify flaps according to chanical nature into, plain flap, slotted flap, split trailing edge [ Fowler flap (Fig.m.8),
; to” means “згідно”, hi the plain flap the wing trailing edge cted downward. In the split trailing edge flap the shape of the face of the wing is unchanged when the flap is lowered. The •change" means “міняти”. And with die prefix “un" it has a re meaning. Translate the word "unchanged".
t. The split trailing edge flap creates more drag than the plain tie word "create" means "утворювати". The Fowler flap moves on a track. "Track” means “рейки”. Which of the three aves backward on a track? rier flap does.
T. The slotted flap provides a slot or opening between the wing and ] leading edge of the flap. I think you know how to translate the "open"?
T. And the word “opening” means “отвір”. The word "slot" is Does the slotted flap provide die slot between the wing and the lea edge of the flap?
S. Yes, it does.
T. What types of flaps do you know?
S. I know four types of flaps. They are plain flaps, split flaps, Fov
flaps and slotted flaps.
Exercise 19. Read and translate text 3.
The flaps are auxiliary surfaces of the wing. They are hinged toj trailing edge of the wing. The flaps are located between the ailerons j the fuselage.
The flaps are used during take off and landing In order to leave,] ground the airplane must have enough lift to support its weight may be increased by increasing the speed, by changing the attitude of wing or by increasing the camber of the wing. During take-off necessary for the speed to be as high as possible in order to shor take-off run and get into the air as quickly as possible. It is dangerc the airplane to increase the angle of attack too much. So it is possib increase lift by using flaps. When the flaps are lowered the camber o| wing is increased. It increases drag. That is why during take off the j angle should be small.
In landing flaps play a very important role. If the flap is well * the increase in drag will be considerable and the gliding angle greater. So we can see that the flaps permit slower and safer flight, landing speeds, steeper angles of descent. The flaps permit land short fields.
We may classify flaps according to their mechanical nat plain flaps, split flaps, Fowler flaps and slotted flaps. In the plain: trailing edge is deflected downward. In the split flap the shape upper surface of the wing is unchanged when the flap is lowe split flap creates more drag than the plain flap. The Fowler flap backward on a track. The slotted flap provides a slot or opening 1 the wing and the leading edge of the flap.
The flaps are hinged to of the wing 2. The slotted flap
ra slot between the wing and of the flap. 3. The airplane
і enough ... to support its weight. 4. When the flaps are lowered wing is increased 5. The split flap creates more ... than the
In the split flap the shape of of the wing is unchanged.
leading edge, the trailing edge, lift, drag, the camber, the upper
Translate from English into Ukrainian.
: flaps are located between airlerons and the fuselage. 2. The jit landing on short fields. 3. The Fowler flap moves backward їА.It is dangerous for the plane to increase the angle of attack і 5. By changing the attitude of the wing we may increase the can considerably increase die drag deflecting the flap
Translate the following sentences.
эилки - це допоміжні поверхні крила. 2. Закрилки вуються при зльоті та посадці. 3. Підіймальну силу можна збільшуючи швидкість, змінюючи положення крила, і кривизни крила. 4. Ми можемо класифікувати закрилки і до їх механічної природи.
Put the questions to the sentences. Begin them with the (don-words.
sion of the flaps increases the effective wing area, area... ?
off flap positions provide high lift and relatively low drag
>, flaps produce high lift and high drag E flaps... ?
When airspeed is reduced the flaps automatically return to the і extended position.
When ... ?
Minor damage to a flap lower surface does not require replacement.
Exercise 25. Name the aviation terms and translate the sentences.
1 When the angle of attack is so steep that the airflow ove upper surface of the wing breaks, lift is lost and drag is increase Cantilever wing is a wing supported only where it is attached to| fuselage, without other supports or braces. 3. Pilots avoid too angle of attack which may result in a loss of lift. 4. Trim tabs free| pilot from constantly adjusting the controls in flight. 5. In take offj approach to landing flaps supply greater lift and drag correspond 6 The tips are made of composites with an aluminium leading ed erosion protection
Exercise 26. Match the definitions in the left column with the terms і the right column
An airplane with two main planes monoplane
The rearmost edge of the airfoil stall
3 . The angle between the direction of the relative strut
wind and the chord position of the wing camber
An extension of the wing used to modify its cantilever i
lift characteristics drag
A loss of lift trailing ed
An airplane with only one wing angle of«
A wing supported only where it is attached to the wing root
fuselage, without other supports or braces biplane