wing leading edge extension extension triple- slotted flap aileron
Exercise 28. Match Ukrainian terms in the left column with English equivalents in the right column.
аеродинамічна перегородка (гребінь)
8. висувнии двощілиннии закрилок
висувний однощілинний закрилок
висувний трищілинний закрилок
носок, що відхиляється
Exercise 29. Translate text 4 in written form.
Text 4. Wing construction
The aeroplane wing does not consist of one single piece from| wing tip to the other, as be manufacture and assembly of such a' difficult. In addition, it is a difficult and costly business to rep!
part of such a wing. Usually the wing consists of three main They are: the colter section (or center panel) which extends fuselage and projects outward at each side, and the outer main outer panels). The center panel may be an integral part of the і or it may be a separate unit. When it is a separate unit it fits so the fuselage as if they are one unit The outer panels subdivide to their respective components, such as main planes proper, * flaps and wing tips. The wing tips are small units bolted to die of the outboard panel. This construction provides an easy ' correcting damage.
aileron construction is similar to the wing construction. The are large airfoils hinged to the trailing edge of the wing. There ftypes of flaps: plain flaps, split trailing edge flaps, slotted flaps, ■ flaps.
plain flap when in neutral position appears almost to be a part ; itself, but its hinge permits it to move downward as desired, split trailing edge type the lower half of the wing can deflect The upper part of die trailing edge of the wing may deflect increase the drag, without increasing the lift. With the slotted itire rear part of the airfoil can deflect downward.
Fowler flap is an arrangement by which the lower part of the ge of the wing rolls back on a track. This movement increases Ive width of the wing.
wings may have slots. Slots are passes through the airfoil ng edge. The slots help to maintain proper flow of air above . and this permits the aeroplane to fly at a higher angle of attack.
j30. Fill the gaps with the words given in brackets.
The aeroplane wing does not consist of... from one wing tip |er. 2. The center panel may be ... of the fuselage or it may be a nit. 3. The outer panels are subdivided into main planes proper and wing tips. 4. The aileron construction is similar to the [5. Slots are ... through the airfoil near the leading edge.
1. Why doesn’t the aeroplane wing consist of one single piece? [ are three main sections of the wing? 3. What wing section |cross the fuselage? 4. What are wing tips? Exercise 32. Read and translate text 5.
Text 5. How an Airplane Flies Hie shape of a wing determines how it will perform in a strea air. A flatshape fights air flow, causing drag (resistance). A shape allows air to flow smoothly around it
The upper side is curved and the under side is straight or straight. The propeller pulls the airplane at high speed through the air j A wing that is curved on top and flatter on the bottom creates^ The air passing over the top surface has a longer distance to travel J therefore moves more quickly creating less pressure than the sic flowing below the wing. The air below the wing exerts pressure up\ causing lift
When air flowing over the top surface of a wing is faster air running on the bottom surface, the pressure on top is lowered.] greater pressure from below propels the wing up into the low pr area, creating lift.
If the wing is tilted upward (when the nose of the plane point lift increases But too steep a tilt causes wing stall or a complete lc lift
Exercise 33. Answer the key-questions on text 5.
1. What wing creates lift? 2. What may propel the wing What cause a complete loss of lift?
in the left column withl
спойлер крила багатолонжеронне: крило з механізаціє крило консольного' центроплан бак-кесон передкршюк дволонжеронне крилй крило змінної сїрілоіюдібності поверхня крила стиковка крила (з фюзеляжем)
(з прямою стрілоподібністю) Translate text 6 without a dictionary.
Text 6. Man's desire to fly
Bsire to fly was one of the oldest desires of man. But in old knew little about air. They did not know that life could not
began to study that phenomenon. Some scientists began to і air and how can a man fly in it?"
reek philosopher Aristotle believed that air had weight and ' bodies which were in the air. Later men of science like • Bacon and Pascal came to the conclusion that air was gas ? higher you went the less its pressure was. That human flight і the fundamental idea of the book by Leonardo da Vinci. In \ famous Italian artist and scientist recorded the first scientific ' human flight. He found that the faster the flow of air, the : was. As a result of these studies he designed a flying devi- irice the pilot had to operate movable wings with the help of [, feet. But the machine did not fly. course of many centuries scientists tried to make a flying ! the development of a practical flying device on a really sis began later. The first flying machine man could control in red only in the 19* century.
Read text 7 and give its summary.
Text 7. A 330 / A 340 Common Wing
340 wing is virtually identical to that of the A 330. Its esents a wing which can support either two or four engines. It conomic cruise requirements of both the medium-range A 330 ;-range A 340.
Dugh similar in overall arrangement, the layout of leading- ? trailing-edge flaps, spoilers and ailerons differs in details - se of the engines. The ailerons are drooped for take off and deflected upwards after touchdown to increase lift dumping ; efficiency.
The most obvious visual difference between the A 330 mid. wings is the latter’s outer engine installation.
Two years of intense three-dimensions computer analysis, with windtunnel studies, has resulted in the A 340 hav wingfengine interference drag than the two-engined A 310.
Exercise 39. Translate text 8 in written form.
All airplanes, by definition, have wings. Some are nearly all j with a very small cockpit. Others have minimal wings, or seem to be merely extensions of a blended, aerodynamic fuselage,] as the space shuttle.
Before the 20th century, wings were made of wooden rib spars (or beams), covered with fabric that was sewn varnished to be extremely stiff. A conventional wing has one ori spars that run from one end of the wing to the other. Perpendic the spar are a series of ribs, which run from the front, or leading < the reai; or trailing edge, of the wing. These are carefully cor shape the wing in a manner that determines its lifting properties, and fabric wings often used spruce for the structure, because material’s relatively light weight and high strength, and linen cloth covering.
Early airplanes were usually biplanes—craft with two usually one mounted about 1.5m (about 5 to 6 ft) above the| Aircraft pioneers found they could build such wings relatively^ and brace them together using wires to connect the upper andj wing to create a strong structure with substantial lift. In pv many cables, wood, and fabric through the air, these designs great deal of drag, so aircraft engineers eventually pursv monoplane, or single-wing airplane. A monoplane's single wing j great advantages in speed, simplicity, and visibility for the pilot
After World War 1(1914-1918). designers began moving ! wings made of steel and aluminum, and, combined witi construction techniques, these materials enabled the develc modern all-metal wings capable not only of developing lift j housing landing gear, weapons, and fuel.
Over the years, many airplane designers have postulated i ideal airplane would, in fact, be nothing but wing. Flying wings,| are called, were first developed in the 1930s and 1940s.
nanufacturer Northrop Grumman Corporation’s flying wing, nber, or Stealth bomber, developed in the 1980s, has been a as a flying machine, benefiting from modem computer- (CAD), advanced materials, and computerized flight Popular magazines routinely show artists' concepts of flying- rs, but airline and airport managers have been unable to lese unusual shapes into conventional airline and airport
Check if you remember these terms : іьна сила ! - передня кромка (-задня кромка інцівка крила частиш
: - кут атаки
)е - кут стрілоподібності (- кут поперечного V крила епсе - кут установки 1- відносний повітряний потік аисокошган гдньоплан зькоплан ати №
"і закрилок гок
■ закрилок Фаулера ►щільовий
ble parts of the wing: ailerons flaps.
Unit IV. THE TAEL UNIT
приводити в дію кренитися, робити віраж підніматися, набирати висоту керувати відхилятися)
спускатися, втрачати висоту підвішувати, кріпиш на шарк знижуватися) штовхати
повздовжня вісь проводка управління відхилення літака від поперев руль повороту педаль руля повороту стабілізатор
Exercise 1. Remember the meaning and pronunciation of these wc to actuate to bank to climb to control to deflect to descend to hinge to lower to push to yaw airfoil accessories control control stick elevator fin
tail unit (tail assembly, empennage) хвостова частина vertical axis вертикальна вісь
Exorcise 2. Listen to the recorded text. Read and translate it.
Text 1. The Tail UnitThe tail unit is one of the principal structural units of the j and the element of airplane frame. Tail assembly or empe located at the rear of the aeroplane. The tail unit consists of two і al and the other is horizontal. They are of symmetrical Each is divided into two parts, the front and the rear. The f fixed. The rear part is in the form of a flap. The vertical led the “fin”. It provides directional control of the aircraft in izontal surface is known as the “stabilizer”. ie fin and the stabilizer are very similar to the wings in They are usually of all-metal construction. The vertical [fin provides directional stability of the aeroplane in flight. It the base to which the rudder is attached The rudder is a face hinged to the trailing edge of the fin. It provides ontrol of the airplane in flight, being deflected to the right or prizontal stabilizer provides longitudinal stability of the [flight. It serves as a support for the elevators.
are movable airfoils, hinged to the trailing edge of the al stabilizer. They can deflect downwards and upwards. іcontrol the climb and descent of the aeroplane that is the aircraft about the lateral axis. To cause die aeroplane to ecessary to deflect them upward. When the elevators are preraft begins to descend.
swer the following questions to the text, is the tail unit located? 2. How many surfaces does the [consist of? 3. What parts constitute the fin? 4. What parts lizer consist of? 5. What is the stabilizer similar to? 6. le vertical stabilizer or fin provide? 7. What provides ability of the aeroplane in flight? 8. Elevators are attached \ edge of the tail’s horizontal stabilizer, aren’t they? 9. How ors deflect? 10. When does file aircraft begin to descend? lged to the fin? 12. How can the rudder be deflected?
Comment on the text “The Tail Unit”, using such
ommon knowledge... pinion...
: is (that)... As far as I know ..
Exercise 5. Translate the combinations with the words rudder,, aerodynamic rudder, movable rudder, adjustable horizontal stabilizer, mechanical stabilizer, vertical stabilizer.
Exercise 6. Match the terms in the right mid left columns: actuate climb descend deflect airfoil
control stick fin
stabilizer rudder elevator
Exercise 7. Say whether these statements are true or false.
1. The tail unit is the element of airplane frame. 2. Tail consists generally of four surfaces. 3. Surfaces constit empennage aren’t of symmetrical airfoil section. 4. Both stabilizer are divided into two parts, the front and the rear. 5. St are very similar to die wings in construction; they are usually fabrics. 6. The vertical stabilizer or fin provides longitudinal; the aircraft in flight. 7. Rudder provides directional control airplane in flight, being deflected upwards or downwards. 8. El are movable airfoils, hinged to the trailing edge of the tail’s stabilizer. 9. The elevators control the motion of the aircraft і longitudinal axis. 10. When the elevators are lowered die aircraft! to descend. ft Write ail the derivatives of the following words and give pation:
It, to coordinate, to deflect, to determine, to maintain, to push,
to activate - actuation actuator actuating
actuated (elevators) ■ приводити в дио приведення в дію силовий привід; рзпсоягка привода який приводить в дію приведені в дію (рулі підйому)
Make word combinations using the words given m lines 1
P. Fill in the gaps with the words given in brackets below and sentences.
The vertical stabilizer or fin provides .... of the aeroplane in ith .... are veiy similar to the wings in construction. 3. ... is rear of the aeroplane. 4. The elevator is a .... airfoil. 5. The lizer also serves as the base to which the .... is attached.
irs control the .... of the aeroplane. 7. The horizontal ovides .... of the aeroplane in flight. 8. The climb and ie aeroplane are the motions of the aircraft about the .... axis, empennage, directional stability, movable, rudder, climb longitudinal stability, lateral.)
Primary Flight Control Surfaces
ay, that empennage is one of the principal structural units of f What do you know about it?
nbly is located at the rear of any aircraft. The tail unit consists of symmetrical airfoil sections: vertical and horizontal Each of than is divided into two parts, the front (fixed) and (movable, in the form of a flap). The vertical surface is known і The horizontal surface is called “stabilizer”. The tail unit directional and longitudinal stability of the aircraft in flight.
T. You are quite right. Look at the picture. Can you point the ? and its sections?
S. Sure. Here they are.
Figure IV. 1
T. O.K. But today our topic isn’t just tail assembly. We’ll be i about primary flight control surfaces. The term “primary flig surfaces” includes ailerons, elevators and rudder. Elevators are the elements of the empennage, and ailerons are the pa wing.
Let's consider the rudder more concretely. Look at this pict
rear of the airplane is the tail assembly or empennage. So, il assembly. It is composed of a fin, which is not movable, er, which is attached to the fin. Here it is in Figure IV.3.
ier is a movable part, hinged to the trailing edge of the tail’s It is designed to control the yawing action around the of the aircraft. The rudder can be deflected to the right or to in line with the fin. If it is necessary to turn the airplane to І rudder is pushed to the left. So, what can you say about the
is movable and, if it is turned towards the right while the yards the left, the nose of the aeroplane turns towards the t the plane makes a right turn.
good. What does the nose of the plane do when you turn yards the right?
|of the plane turns towards the right.
If the nose of the aircraft turns towards the right, in which їthe tail turn? і towards the left, plane make a right turn?
quite right. The control surfaces are actuated by means of tiism, which consists of the controls in the cockpit together age and accessories.
Remember these terms: to actuate- приводити в дію controls- органи керування linkage- проводка керування accessories- допоміжні агрегати
Т. Look at this picture. This is the flight control system.
The control stick or column and rudder pedals through the actuate all control surfaces. The linkage consists of cables 1 tumbuckles. The cables are guided through fair-leads and over pu
Figure IV. 4
The word-combinations "control stick” and “control column” same meaning. They are translated as “ручка керування”.
Let’s translate the new terms: tumbuckle стяжна муфта
fair-lead вивідна трубка
pulley блок, шків, ролик
rudder pedal педаль руля повороту.
Т. Let's translate this passage.
Всі органи керування приводяться в дію ручкою: педалями руля повороту за допомогою проводки я Проводка керування складається з тросів зі стяжними Троси приводяться в дію за допомогою вивідних трубок І ]
pushing the left pedal, the pilot makes the rudder move to the the airplane to turn to the left around its vertical axis, the right pedal turns the airplane to the right. The primary r the rudder is to coordinate with the ailerons the movement of