Первая страница
Наша команда
Контакты
О нас

    Головна сторінка



Навчально-методичний посібник з англійської мови

Навчально-методичний посібник з англійської мови




Сторінка5/15
Дата конвертації16.03.2017
Розмір2 Mb.
ТипНавчально-методичний посібник
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15
t when the plane is banked, i picture.

it



Figure IV.5

[elevators. The elevators are movable airfoils. They are ; the trailing edge of the tail's horizontal stabilizer. Do they jitch?

do. They control the pitch that is the rotation of the aircraft ateral or pitch axis. To cause the aeroplane to climb it is deflect them upward. When the elevators are lowered the і to descend.

rite right. So, they can deflect downwards and upwards.

; Listen to the recorded text. Read and translate it.

Text 2. Flight Control System

to control the airplane while in flight it is necessary to movable control surfaces or airfoils. The airfoils designed by the pilot in order to change the attitude of the airplane are known as primary and secondary control surfaces. By meant the angular position of the airplane in relation to the ne and the vertical plane.

ary group includes ailerons, elevators and rudder. They age the attitude of the aircraft about the vertical, lateral and

tes.

The axis that runs from the nose to the tail of an airplane) longitudinal axis, and the rotation about this axis is called “гоЩ axis that runs from one wing tip to the other wing tip is the lat the rotation about this axis is called “pitch”. The axis, whiclj vertically about the aircraft, is called the vertical axis and the rc about it is called “yaw”

Ailerons are movable surfaces attached to the trailing edge wing, near the wing tips. Ailerons help to bank the aeroplane, they control the roll, or movement around the longitudinal axis, are so connected that when the aileron on one wing is turned aileron on the other wing automatically goes down. If the pilot W0 roll to the right, he moves the stick to the right or turns the wheel I right and the right aileron goes up and at the same time the left ai] goes down increasing the lift on the left side, thereby assisting in 1 action to the right.

The elevators are movable airfoils. They are attached trailing edge of the tail’s horizontal stabilizer. The elevators conta pitch, that is, the rotation about the pitch axis. They can downwards and upwards. To cause the airplane to climb it is ne to deflect elevators upwards. Whoa the elevators are lowered the i begins to descend.

The rudder is a movable part attached to the trailing tail’s vertical fin, and is designed to control the aircraft yawing i around the vertical axis. The rudder can be deflected to the right or| left or lie in a line with the fin. If it is necessary to turn the airpla left the rudder is pushed to the left and vice versa.

Exercise 12. Answer the questions on text 2 “Flight Control Sysfc 1. Why is it necessary to equip an airplane with movable surfaces or airfoils? 2. What is used to change the attitude of the і during flight? 3. What are the airfoils designed to be moved by 1 in order to charge the attitude of the airplane during flight cal] What term determines the angular- position of the airplane in rela the horizontal, vertical and lateral planes? 5. The axis that runs nose to the tail of the machine is the longitudinal axis, and the;

[axis is called “roll”, isn’t it? 6. Rotation about what axis is ph”? 7. What axis runs vertically about the aircraft? 8. What the aeroplane, that is, control its movement around the *1 axis? 9. What must the pilot do, if he wants to roll to the fWhat is it necessary to do to cause tire airplane to climb? іе elevators are lowered the airplane begins to climb, doesn’t at is designed to control the aircraft yawing action around the is? 13. How can the rudder be deflected? 14. What is it і do to turn the airplane to the left?

Match the English and Ukrainian teams: приводити в дію

рухомий аеродинамічний профіль механізм керування ism знижати(ся)

поперечна вісь набирати висоту відхиляш(ся) хвостова частина foil вивідна трубка

стяжна муфта педаль руля повороту блок, шків руль висоти допоміжні агрегати проводка керування відхилення від курсу крен, віраж

, Put questions of different kinds to the following sentences, adder controls the motion of the aeroplane about the vertical

Mitrol surfaces are actuated by means of control ism.

  1. Pressure on the left pedal turns the aircraft to the left.

  2. The rudder is attached to the trailing edge of the tail’s vertica

  3. The rudder is designed to control yawing of the aircraft.

Exercise 15 Read these words out loud, paying attention to the stre

  1. on the first syllable:

aileron, surface, rudder, tail, structure, metal, system;

  1. on the second syllable:

construction, internal, externally, control, controlled, about, wit connect

Translate the words.

Exercise 16. Translate the following word pairs.

  1. to control - controller; to support - supporter; to protect - protector; to design - designer; to train - trainer; to instruct - instruc

  2. to contr ol -controlling, to train - training; to carry - carrying; i airlift - airlifting;

  3. importance-important; difference - different; significance- significant; independence - independent; assistance- assistant.

Exercise 17. Give English equivalents to the following terms:

робити віраж, набирати висоту, штовхати, кріпити шарнірах, знижуватися), аеродинамічний профіль, повздовж вісь, поперечна вісь, відхилення літака відносно поперечно! руль повороту, кіль, рискання.

Exercise 18. Make word combinations combining the words of the end 2od groups,

I: trailing, horizontal, rudder, pitch, outer, movable, tail, cont vertical.

П: pedals, stabilizer, axis, edge, elevator, airfoil, assembly, stick, fii

pise 19. Complete the following sentences with the words below.

The elevator is attached to the trailing edge of the 2. The

or controls toe ... around the pitch axis. 3. To cause toe plane to irto the right, toe pilot moves toe ... to toe right. 4. The ailerons help

the airplane. 5. At toe rear of toe plane is toe 6. The rudder

Removable part designed to control toe around toe vertical axis

aircraft. 7. The control surfaces are actuated by means of

The primary purpose of the rudder is to ... with toe ailerons toe rent of the aircraft when toe plane is banked. 9. Both stabilizers і very similar to the ... in construction.

horizontal stabilizer, coordinate, rotation, stick, bank, tail ably, yawing action, control mechanism).

rcise 20. Translate into English.

1. Руль повороту - це рухома частина, прикріплена до ього краю кіля. 2. Руль повороту може відхилятися вправо, або знаходитися в одній площині з кілем. 3. Площини рування приводяться в дію за допомогою механізму керування 4. эдка керування складається з тросів зі стяжними муфтами. 5. прокладено через вивідні трубки і шківи. 6. Рулі висоти миляться до заднього краю горизонтального стабілізатора. 7. Рулі можуть відхилятися догори й донизу. 8. Коли рулі висоти впускаються, літак починає втрачати висоту.

rcise 21. Translate text 3 in toe written form.

Text3. Elevators



The elevators are movable airfoils, which are hinged to the zontal stabilizer and used by the pilot to move toe aeroplane around lateral or pitch axis. If one wants to change toe attitude of toe lane and descend, he places the forward pressure on toe control stick.

due to the system of cables connecting the stick to the elevators, *ers toe trailing edge of toe elevators, causing the increase of lift at the L As a result the tail of toe airplane moves up and toe nose moves awards.
The backward pressure on the control stick raises the trailing i of the elevators and causes the nose of the aircraft to move upwards.

Dialogue 2

Secondary Control Surfaces

T. As we know control surfaces are divided into primary and. second surfaces. What are the primary control surfaces used for?

S. The primary control surfaces are used to control the motion of ] airplane around three main axes.

T. You are right. Secondary control surfaces are used to trim airplane. Remember the meaning and pronunciation of these words:


to bend to hinge to trim



trimmer, trim tab balance tab servo tab control wheel control column (stick) crank

primary control surfaces secondary control surfaces Look at this picture.
згинати, вигинати підвішувати, кріпити на шарнірах врівноважувати, регулювати, балансувати тример

сервотример, сервокомпенсатор компенсатор

штурвал, штурвальне колесо штурвальна колонка, ручка керуванв кривошип, коліно основні площини керування допоміжні площини керування

Figure IV. 6

These are the secondary control surfaces. These are trim tabs. Secor control surfaces include trim tabs, servo tabs, balance tabs. They
lively small airfoils attached to the trailing edges of the primary rol surfaces. A trim tab is used to correct any tendency of the jlane to abnormal attitude of flight without application of pressure rtfie control column or the rudder pedals. Look at this picture.

Figure 1V.7

bis is the elevator trim tab. The elevator trim tab is usually adjustable i inside the cabin in flight by turning a trim wheel or crank.

: at this picture.

Figure IV. 8

,C!Xhat is the rudder trim tab. Trim tabs on the rudder may be either fustable from inside the plane or they may be small sections that must ^adjusted on the ground by bending the section in the proper direction, frim tab permits the aircraft to fly straight ahead without application of sure on the control wheel or rudder pedals. So, what can you say at trim tabs?

Trim tabs are relatively small airfoils attached to the trailing edges of ! primary control surfaces. Trim tabs are used to correct any tendency of the aeroplane to abnormal attitude of flight without application pressure to the control stick or the rudder pedals.

T. Your answer is very good.

Exercise 22. Listen to the recorded text 4. Read and translate it.

Text 4. Secondary Control Surfaces

The primary control surfaces are used to direct the airplane i three main axes. Various other control surfaces are used to trim - or balance - the airplane and provide stability in flight The secor control surfaces are relatively small airfoils attached to the trailing < of the primary control surfaces. They include the trim tabs, servo-t and balance tabs.

A trim tab is used to correct any tendency of the aeroplane abnormal attitude of flight without application of pressure to the contj stick or the rudder pedals.

The balance tab decreases the force, which must be exerted by j pilot to deflect primary control surfaces The balance tab is* connected that when the primary control surface is moved in direction the tab rotates in the opposite direction.

A servo-tab is used to assist in moving a large primary airfoil; holding it in the desired position with the help of a special mechanism.

The secondary control surfaces are actuated by levers, wheels cranks or by connection with the controls of the primary surfaces.

The elevator trim tab is usually adjustable from inside the cabii flight, by turning a trim wheel or crank.

Trim tabs on the rudder may be either adjustable from inside t plane or they may be small sections that must be adjusted on the grc by bending the section in the proper direction.

The rudder trim tab permits the aircraft to fly straight ah^ without pressure on the control wheel or rudder pedals

«erase 23. Answer the questions.

1. What are the secondary control surfaces? 2. What do the jjecondaiy control surfaces include? 3. What is a trim tab used for? ■Ц Does the rudder trim tab permit the aircraft to fly straight ahead ^Without pressure on the control wheel or rudder pedals? 5. b the balance tab so connected that when the primary control surface is moved in any ' ^rection the tab rotates in the opposite direction? 6. How does a balance B(b work? 7. What are the secondary control surfaces actuated by?

  1. How is the elevator trim tab adjusted? 9. How is the rudder trim tab adjusted?

Exercise 24. Read these terms out loud and translate them.

  1. to direct, to control, to trim, to adjust, to balance, to correct, to decrease, to exert, to actuate, to bend, to rotate;

  2. axis, stability, airfoil, edge, trim tab, servo-tab, balance tab, tendency, attitude, application, force, direction, lever, crank, wheel.

Exercise 25. Read and remember these verb combinations:

abnormal attitude- неправильне положення (літака в повітрі);

to provide control - забезпечувати керування;

to lower flaps - опускати закрилки;

to provide stability - забезпечувати стійкість

to consider flight control system - розглядати систему керування

літаком у польоті;

to include trim tabs- включати тримери; to correct, tendency - виправляти тенденцію; to apply pressure - прикладати зусилля;

to change attitude - змінювати положення в повітрі (відносно трьох

осей).

Exercise 26. Translate two- and three- word combinations: control surface movable control surface

control mechanism simple wing flap

pitch control elevator trim tab
trim control surface rudder trim tab primary control surface adjustable trim tab


pitch axis wing flap rudder pedal control wheel


Exercise 27. Translate the following words without using a dictionary: aerodynamic (a), aileron (n), cabin (n)5 centre (n), class (r comfortable (a), engineer (n), fuselage (n), horizontal (a), vertical (a moment (n), pilot (n), pilot (v), problem (a), effectiveness (n).

Exercise 28. Find the English equivalents of the following won constructions in text 4:

допоміжні площини керування; компенсатор; тример рул повороту; ручка керування; протилежні напрямки; педалі ру повороту; стійкість у польоті; допоміжні площини керуваї сервокомпенсатор; неправильне положення в повітрі; штурвалы колонка.

Exercise 29. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with the word

below.

1 are relatively small airfoils attached to the trailing ed

of the primary control surfaces. 2. A trim tab is used to correct

tendency of the aeroplane to of flight without application

pressure to the control stick or the rudder pedals. 3 is

adjustable from inside the cabin in flight by turning a trim wheel

crank. 4 on the rudder may be adjustable from inside the pla

5 permits the aircraft to fly straight ahead without pressure i

the control wheel or rudder pedals.

(rudder trim tab; trim tabs; elevator trim tab; abnormal attitud

secondary control surfaces).

Exercise 30. Combine the words of two groups to make all possiWj

word combinations. Translate them.

I group: balance, opposite, primary, secondary, rudder, control.

И group: wheel, airfoil, surface, direction, pedal, tab.
if erase 31. Translate the sentences into English.

1 Допоміжні площини керування - це відносно малі і аеродинамічні поверхні, прикріплені до задньої частини основних ршощин керування. 2. Допоміжні площини керування - це тримери [та сервотримери. 3. Тримери використовуються для того, щоб апомагати пілоту оперувати основними площинами керування. 4. Йример руля висоти зазвичай керується з кабіни поворотом штурвала тримера 5. Тример використовується для виправлення ! будь якої тенденції літака до відхилення від потрібного положення f в польоті.

Exercise 32. Translate the words with negative prefixes, in - : inactive, incompressible, incorrect, independent, ineffective,

invisible, inoperative, indirect, incomplete; да- : unaccelerated, unbalanced, uncontrolled, uncontrollable, unguided, unlimited, unusual, unstable, unsyxnmetrical; non- : non-axial, non-aggresive, non-standard, non-flammable, non­stop;

ir- : irregular, irrational, irreconcilable, irrelevant, irreparable,

irresponsible;

ik : illegal, illegible, illegitimate, illicit, illiterate, illogical; im« : impractical, impossible, immaterial, immature, imminent.

pbrcise 33. Translate the following sentences.

1. Рухомі площини керування діляться на основні та допоміжні. 2. Головними площинами керування є елерони, рулі висоти та руль повороту. 3. Руль повороту служить для того, щоб і ’змінювати положення літака в польоті відносно вертикальної осі. 4. Рулі висоти служать для того, щоб змінювати положення літака в Іямьоті відносно поперечної осі. 5. Допоміжні площини йюрування - це гримери, компенсатори та сервокомпенсатори.

Обертання навколо повздовжньої осі називається “roll”.

  1. Обертання навколо поперечної осі називається “pitch”.

І
Exercise 34. Put questions to the underlined words.

1. In order to control the aircraft while in flight it is necessary i equip it with movable control surfaces or airfoils. 2. The primary groii includes ailerons, elevators and the rudder. 3. Hie axis that runs from i nose to the tail is called the longitudinal axis. 4. Rotation about longitudinal axis is called “roll” 5. Rotation of tire aircraft about lateral axis is called “pitch”. 6. Flying crew cany out work connec with aircraft flight. 7. The rudder serves for changing the attitude of | aeroplane about the vertical axis.

Exercise 35. Find synonyms among these words and write them pairs:

ailerons, elevators and the rudder; purpose; pitch axis, control surfaces; aerodynamic surface; tail unit; lateral axis; trim j secondary control surfaces; airfoil; empennage; aim.

Exercise 36. Match the equivalents in the left and right columns.


control column (control stick)



controls

elevator

trim tab

rudder

fm

yawing

fair-lead

empennage

linkage

airfoil
аеродинамічний профіль кіль

штурвальна колонка, керування руль повороту відхилення від курсу (рї хвостова частиш тример руль висоти вивідна трубка органи керування проводка керування

Exercise 37. Give the definitions to the following terms.

Example. The pilot is a person who flies an aircraft rudder, fin, aileron, elevator, empennage, roll, pitch, yaw, system, primary control surfaces, secondary control surfa control stick, linkage, turobuckle, rudder pedals
tercise 38. Translate text 5 in writing.

Text 5

There are three basic flight control surfaces: the ailerons, the >rs and the rudder.


<


The elevators are hinged to the horizontal stabilizer and control lane movement up and down about the lateral axis. When the 1 stick is moved forward, the elevators lower, and the airplane and vice versa

.Many newer aircraft possess a different method of controlling the ЦЛЬія method combines the horizontal stabilizer and the elevators ||ngle surface known as die controllable horizontal tail.

39. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the і of the modal verbs may and can.

wing of box type can house several fuel tanks. 2. Can flight t expected to arrive in time? 3. The airplane can’t be landed in ras it is snowing there. 4. The young pilot could navigate civil he had graduated from the university. 5. If I had a good id a little more experience in this field, I could translate s. 6. All the necessary certification procedures may be nonth. 7. You may not find any errors in this wing structure, ger you are looking for may be waiting for you at the 2* ^aeroplane may have already arrived in Tripoli. 10.1 shall lufacturer’s instructions so that he can examine them, low something about the flight control system. 12. If the ried, he might have repaired the damaged ailerons in time, can’t control tiie motion of the aeroplane about the lit?

slate the following sentences. Pay attention to the of translation of the modal verbs need, must, should

it of National Aviation University must know [the primary and secondary control surfaces. 2. The

repair the tail assembly must be completed as soon as possible. 3. halat
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15