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Навчально-методичний посібник з англійської мови

Навчально-методичний посібник з англійської мови




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Дата конвертації16.03.2017
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ТипНавчально-методичний посібник
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106 tab decreases the force, which must be exerted by the рй 4 ^here is the pilot? - He must be checking the systems of і aeroplane before start. 5. You must have left the books at the Unive 6 (yne ought to be very attentive and careful when testing the Щ control system the aircraft. 7. Flight engineer should know > specifics of the control surfaces operation. 8. Need he test the fl| cont;rtd and stabilizing surfaces of the aeroplane irmnediat| 9 gtudents should be familiar with the definition of terns “pitch” ancj “roll”. 10. The cargo needn’t have been sent by airplane. 11. crev^ was to finish the flight at 6.30 in the evening. 12. According tol contract, the goods are to arrive at the Lebanon airport at the end of I

weeK

Incise 41. Translate the following sentences into English. attjSption to the translation of the modal verbs.

1.Механік повинен регулярно перевіряти стан сис керування літаком у польоті. 2. Студенти мають знати, що ру ддсіцини керування діляться на основні та допоміжні. 3. Йому! сїї$ було говорити на екзамені, що елерони не належать до плої керування. 4. Щоб керувати літаком у польоті, пілоту оП0рувати його рухомими площинами керування. 5. Полоз цільного апарата відносно вертикальної, поперечної Ш0здовжньої осей можна змінити за допомогою елеронів, ру gjj^OTH і повороту. 6. Ці студента першого курсу можуть не ЗІ щ0 таке тримери. 7. Ви повинні згадати термін, що означає: ді^ка відносно поперечної осі. 8. Тримери слід назі допоміжними площинами керування. 9. Авіаційний спеціаліст: с1ї0чатку пояснити стажисту, що таке “рискання”. 10. Пілот: п0£ернути літак вліво та зменшити висоту польоту. 11. Ступ сК0зав, що може пояснити, як працюють педалі руля повор У2, Він зможе переказати статтю “Руль повороту” без жоді проблем. 13. Він повинен був пригадати, з яких елеме* сК)йцається головна система керування літаком у полі







Unit V. LANDING GEAR

Exercise 1. Remember the active vocabulary: auxiliary unit - допоміжний пристрій antiskid system - про гиюзова система brake - гальмо centre of gravity - центр ваги

disarm indicator - індикатор автоматичного керування directional control - управління по курсу indication light - світловий сигнальний пристрій nose over - капотування parking brake - шркувальне гальмо retraction - прибирання шасі selector lever - селекторний важіль steering - рульове керування steering wheel - рульове колесо shock strut - амортизаційна стійка switch - перемикати, перемикач

tricycle landing gear - трьохопорне шасі (з носовим колесом) visibility - видимість

Dialogue 1

Т. Our today’s topic is “The Landing Gear”. We discussed the and general design of die landing gear while speaking about prir structural units of die airplane. Now answer the following questic please. Does the landing gear support the aiiplane on the ground?

S. Yes, it does. It supports the airplane on the ground

T. Does the landing gear reduce shocks of landing?

S. Yes, it does. It reduces shocks of landing.

T. What are functions of the landing gear?

S. The functions of the landing gear are to support the plane on the j

and to reduce shocks of landing.

T. Good. And what types of the landing gear do you know?

  1. There are retractable and non-retractable landing gears.

T. What does the landing gear consists of ?

S. It consists of main and auxiliary units.
1 Look at figure V.l.

Figure V.l

The landing gear consists of the main and auxiliary units. Hie main landing gear is attached near the centre of gravity of the machine and forms the principal support of the airplane. The auxiliary landing gear may be either at the tail as a tail wheel or at the front of the fuselage as a nose wheel. You can see the landing gear with the nose wheel in frre picture. It is called the tricycle landing gear (шасі з носовим колесом). The tricycle landing gear is employed extensively as it answers good stability of the plane during take-off run and landing roll and prevents a plane from nosing over in landing. ‘Take-off run” -розбіг під час зльоту; “landing roll” - пробіг під час посадки, “noseover”- лаштування.


Dialogue 2



.Look at figure V.2, please.

Figure V.2

The tail wheel landing gear consists of the main gear and the tail wheel with the centre of gravity located at some distance to the rear of

J ? the main gear.
Where may the auxiliary landing gear be located?

S. It may be located at the front as a nose wheel and at the tail as af wheel.

T. Is the tricycle landing gear employed extensively?

S. Yes, it is. It has some advantages.

Dialogue 3

T. Now we proceed to discussing the main landing gear design. The; landing gear includes wheels, shock absorbers, wheel retracting mechanism and structural members. The term *' absorber” is translated as “амортизатор”, “brake” - гальмо, brakes” - колест гальма, “retracting mechanism” - мех випуску та прибирання шасі.

Main wheels take up to 85 per cent of the weight of a plane, why the main landing gear should be of robust design and in me airplanes each main unit carries a four six >, eight • and even wheel bogie. “Bogie” - візок.

What part of the landing gear are we speaking on?

S. We are speaking on the main landing gear.

T. What does the main landing gear include?

S. As far as I remember, it includes wheels, shock-absorbers, brakes, retracting mechanism and structural members.


T.


What is the Ukrainian for “shock absorbers”, “wheel “retracting mechanism” and “structural members”?


S.


The Ukrainian for “shock absorbers” is “амортизатори”, “re mechanism” is “механізм випуску та прибирання шасі”, brakes” are “колесні гальма”, “structural members” “конструктивні елементи”

T. What structural members does die main landing gem: include?

S. It includes wheels, shock absorbers, wheel brakes, retract!

mechanism and structural members.

Exercise 2. Read and translate text 1.

Text 1. Landing Gear

The landing gear or undercarriage is one of the main struc units of the airplane. The landing gear provides support for the airpi during static and ground manoeuvring conditions. Structurally it react

airplane loads in three axes and the component forces that are «rated during its motion.

The landing gear usually consists of the main and auxiliary its. The main landing gear is attached near the center of gravity of an lane and forms its principal support. The auxiliary landing gear forms Іщ auxiliary support and as it is far away from the center of gravity of the :hine and less loaded it is made comparatively light

Present day airplanes have a tricycle type landing gear «insisting of two main gears and a nose gear. This design has some antages, namely: it improves visibility during taxiing, reduces the ibility of nose over, makes an airplane more stable during landing as the center of gravity is ahead of the main wheels.

Airplanes having a tricycle type landing gear employ air/oil shock struts. Hydraulic power is used for normal gear extension and .retraction. In a large number of airplanes the gear may be extended manually. Shock strut compression is used for air/ground sensing control end utilizes solid state sensors as does the indication and warning system. Nose wheel steering is available for taxy and take off and for directional control when the airplane is on the ground. A steering wheel gives up to about 78 degrees left and right steering capability.

Brakes are installed on the main gear and may be operated in either manual or automatic mode; an antiskid system is used to increase braking effectiveness.


К л'--'


Landing gear control and indication components include, the landing gear selector lever and indication lights, manual extension handles, parking brake lever and indicator, nose gear steering control wheel, antiskid control switch mid inoperative indicator, and the autobrake control switch and disarm indicator.

> Exercise 3. Answer the following questions on the text.

|)i 1. What is the function of the landing gear? 2. How does the

standing gear react to the airplane loads? 3. What are the main and Нішу landing gear functions? 4. What are the advantages of a tricycle ?e landing gear? 5. What is hydraulic power used for? 6.What is shock л. compression used for? 7.What is nose wheel steering available for? & Where are brakes installed? 9. What is used to increase braking
effectiveness? 10. What do landing gear control and indie components include?

Exercise 4. Using suffixes -er, -or, give nouns which are related following verbs. Translate them:

cany, provide, support, condition, react, load, generate, design, employ, use, compress, sense, control, do, indicate, direct, operate, sejj

Exercise 5. Combine die words listed below into two- or three-i terms.

Example : ground manoeuvring


control

sensor

sensing

steering

air

solid

shock

wheel

antiskid

switch

normal

forces

oil

brake

system

compon*

antiskid

parking

tricycle

type

auxiliary

strut




retraction

landing

airplane

day

nose

load

selector

main

ground

lever

Exercise 6. Say what is true and what is false. Correct the false sent using the following expressions.

I don’t agree with you I see your point, but і

I disagree with you Nothing of the kind

I am afraid I can’t agree with you On the contrary

I am afraid Q. think) you are mistaken

l.The landing gear provides support for the airplane manoeuvring conditions. 2. The landing gear usually consists of the i and auxiliary units. 3. The auxiliary landing gear is attached center of gravity of an airplane. 4. The main landing gear is less lc and is made comparatively light- 5. Present day airplanes have a truj type landing gear, that is consisting of two main gears and a nose;

  1. Nose wheel steering is available for directional control when]

Jane is in flight. 7. An antiskid system is used to decrease braking iveness. 8. A steering wheel gives up to about 78 degrees left and t. steering capability.

rcise 7. Find synonyms in the text for the following words:

аг, let out, let in, hand operated, fashion, to fix in position, to become er, principle, to place, rear, to supply with, unit, dive, stand by.

rcise 8. Fill in the blanks with the following words or word- binations: shock strut, main gear, nose over, increase, directional rol, manually, steering capability, hydraulic power.

1. The gear may be extended .... 2. A tricycle type landing gear ses the possibility of... during landing. 3. ... is used for normal gear ision and retraction. 4. ... compression is used for air or ground sing control. 5. The antiskid system is used to .... braking Iffectiveness. 6. A steering wheel gives up to about 78 degrees left and fit... .7 Nose wheel steering is available for taxi and take off and for . 8. Brakes are installed on the ... .

rcise 9. Choose tire correct answer.

What is the function of the landing gear? to contain the power plant; to provide stability in flight; to support an airplane an the ground.

How often is the tricycle landing gear employed now? never;

extensively; not often.

Why is the tricycle landing gear employed extensively now? it provides good stability during the take-off run; it provides more clear space for the cabin; it. prevents a plane from nosing over in landing.

Why should the main landing gear be of robust design? it takes up to 85 per cent of the weight of an airplane;

  1. it increases visibility during take-off and landing;

  2. it provides stability during take-off

Exercise 10. Translate into English.

І.Шасі забезпечує підтримку літака під час сто* маневрування на землі. 2. Основна стійка шасі знаходиться! центру ваги літака та є його основною опорою. 3. Конструкція ] носовим колесом має декілька переваг, а саме: вона nos видимість під час рулювання, зменшує можливість перекида робить літак більш стійким під час посадки. 4. У багатьох лі| шасі може випускатися вручну. 5. Гальма розташовані на оснс шасі і можуть управлятися автоматично або вручну.

Exercise 11. Learn the recommended vocabulary: axis (axle) - вісь beam hanger - вузол кріплення blade seal - обтюратор bogie damper - циліндр-демпфер візка шасі bogie beam - балка візка шасі bracket - кронштейн center door - середня стулка шасі down lock - замок випущеного положення down lock actuator - циліндр замка випущеного положення down lock link - тяга замка випущеного положення down lock spring burgee - підкіс, що складається, випущу

положення і

drag strut - діагональний підкіс forward trunnion bearing - передній підшипник цапфи jacking point - точка встановлення на домкрат lever - важіль

main gear actuator ( actuating cylinder) - гідроциліндр основної і malfunction - несправність

mechanical position indicator - механічний індикатор положег mount - кронштейн rod-тяга

Text 2. 737 Main Landing Gear

The main gear is a simple, dual-wheel, conventional landing specifically designed to increase operation reliability and minimize

ntenance.

The main gear retracts up and inboard into the wheel well. The sard side of the outboard tire, in the up and locked position, fairs with contour of the airplane (blade seals) to form the main gear wheel well As a result, landing gear doors and associated linkages and ators are not required. Closure is completed by blade seals which fit and the outboard wheels when the gear is retracted. The only doors on the main gear installation are small segmented doors attached to I shock strut and hinged to the wing. The doors enclose the spanwise ; cavity when the gem- is retracted.

Components of tire main landing gear are designed to provide num service life and minimum spares inventory The simplified retry of the main gear has resulted in identical right and left gear DOnentS.

Simplified main gear design and installation offer the operator

і following advantages:

1. Elimination of the main gear doors reduces parts and provides easy access to the main gear wheel well.

Manual gear release from the flight compartment initiates gear free fall to the down and locked position.

737s are equipped with a soft-stroke main landing gear. The r-oil shock strut metering pin is designed to reduce the peak fluid deration over a greater length of stroke, so that passenger comfort is roved and stresses on the main landing gear supporting structure are reased.

The 737-400 main landing gear shock strut differs slightly from -300 and -500 in that it has a one inch longer stroke and slightly ker strut wall.

Exercise 14. Answer the following questions on the text

1. What is the main landing gear of Boeing 737 2. Where does the main gear retract? 3. What fairs with the contour < airplane to form the main gear wheel closure? 4. What is completed by? 5. What are the only doors, used on the mainj installation, attached to? 6. What has the simplified geometry of thej gear resulted in? 7. What provides easy access to the main gear well? 8. What is designed to improve passenger comfort?

Exercise 15. Say what is true and what is false. Correct the statements.

1. The main landing gear is a complicated, single-v conventional landing gear. 2. It is specifically designed to operational reliability and maximize maintenance. 3. The main: retracts up and inboard into the wheel well. 4. Closure is comple blade seals which fit around the outboard wheels when the extended

Exercise 16. Finish the following statements.

1. The main gear is a simple, dual-wheel, convent landing gear specifically designed to ... 2. The main gear retracts ... 3. Closure is completed by blade seals which ... 4. The only used on the main gear installation are ... 5. Components of the landing gear are designed to.... 6. Elimination of gear doors

parts and ... 7. Manual gear release from the flight compartment

Language Focus

Compound nouns (clusters)

In English we can use nouns as adjectives.

For example; airplane wing, flight control, brake system.

The first word functions as the adjective and answers the question' kind of...?”

The relationship between two nouns can be of many kinds, including : Place: cockpit door, fuselage bulkhead, side strut,
winter season, summer route; ietiul: rubber seal, metal ring, glass fiber;

netimes three or more words are combined: air traffic control, business vel expenditure.



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  • Landing Gear