passenger comfort, runway condition, control stand, warning light, wheel [rotation, rudder pedal, depressurization valve, brake pressure, antiskid valve, antiskid protection, calibration check, landing gear doors, the peak fluid acceleration, gear shock strut, ground test features, accumulator isolator valve, landing gear selector lever, antiskid control unit front panel, main landing gear design characteristic.
Exercise 18. Translate text 3. Put 3 key questions on the text.
Text 3. System Interface - Brake System
Braking is provided by four brake assemblies located on the main gear wheels. The brakes are applied either manually using brake pedal input or automatically using the autobrake systems. In either case, the antiskid system, using normal or alternative antiskid valves, is used to modulate brake pressure to optimize braking for any given runway condition. The controls for the antiskid and autobrake systems are located on the P2 panel, adjacent to the landing gear selector lever. The parking brake permits setting the brakes when the airplane is parked or moored. A red light on the control stand indicates when the parking brake is set. rubber blade seals - гумовий обтюратор
Exercise 12. Looking at figure v.3, translate and remember the landing gear components.
Beam Hanger w.
Main Gear Actuator -
Upioek Actuator^ Dmmlodt; Acluatorv Main Geer Actuator
Drag Strut - Center Ooor -
Outer Ooor~ Center Door—
Main Gear Components
Main Gear Shimmy Damper*
NJacWng Poini» (Nrt Shown)
4 Shock Strut 4Uptodr Adler
The landing gear hydraulically actuated to extend and retract by means of a landing gear selector lever, is placed in the ‘UP’ position, all three gears retract. Each main gear retracts inboard into the fuselage. The nose gear retracts forward into the nose wheel well. When the selector lever is placed in the ‘DOWN’ position, all three gears extend. The ‘OFF’ position is the normal cruise mode and all landing gears are locked up and depressurized. A solenoid lode system restricts the selector lever from being placed in the ‘UP’ position when the airplane is on the ground.
Six lights located above the landing gear selector lever provide indication and warning for the landing gear. A green light is illuminated when the respective gear is down and locked. The red light is illuminated when the landing gear is in transit or the landing gear lever and the landing gear do not agree. The red lights also serve as warning lights when the airplane is in a possible landing configuration and the gear is not down and locked.
Three red manual extension handles are located on the floor of the flight compartment, just aft of the first officer’s station, for manual extension of the landing gear in case of hydraulic malfunction in system ‘A’, the manual extension handles are independently operated for each gear. The landing gear selector lever should be in the ‘OFF’ position for manual extension.
Exercise 20. Make a written summary of text 4.
Exercise 21. Leam the recommended vocabulary: antiskid system - протигазова система bellcrank- боковий важіль, куліса, кривошип inoperative -непрацюючий jacking point - точка встановлення на домкрат
lower (upper) drag brace link - нижнє (верхнє) кільце підкосу,
nose gear shock strut - амортизаційна стійка носового шасі
The nose gear is a conventional dual-wheel type- forwards and up into the nose gear well.
Features of the nose gear installation include:
A single up and down lock link operated by a single actuator.
Two clamshell doors are mechanically actuated by bellcranks and pushrods. The doors remain open any time the gear is extended.
Integral shimmy damping by transmitting nose gear torsion loads directly into die nose gear hydraulic steering cylinders.
Nose gear steering through the rudder pedals (7 degrees).
Nose gear steering using the steering wheel located on the captain’s side panel (78 degrees).
Nose gear steering control, on the copilot’s side panel, is
Utilization of the steering depressurization valve allows nose throughout the Ml steering range with system A pressurized t disconnecting the torsion links.
ose gear steering is hydraulically powered by system A landing gear hydraulic down line. Hydraulic System В can be iltemative steering pressure source.
leering is controlled by the steering wheel on the captain’s side the rudder pedals. Using the steering wheel, 78 degrees of |ech direction is available. Rudder pedal steering provides 7 direction for small directional changes during takeoff, 'mg. The steering wheel ovemdes the rudder pedal mput. steering is deactivated 10 seconds after the nose gear strut ed (air/ground sensing). Centering cams inside the nose the gear before retraction.
wer the following questions on text 5.
re does the nose gear retract? 2. How many actuators is 'own lock link operated by? 3. What is actuated by two 4. What is integral shimmy damping provided by? le on the copilot’s side panel? 6. What allows nose gear steering controlled by?
Exercise 24. Combine the words listed below into two- or three- terms:
Exercise 25. Fill in the blanks with proper words or phrases:
nose gear towing, hydraulic down line, side panel, rudder, pedal, gear strut, steering wheel, clamshell doors, shimmy damping.
1. Nose gear steering is provided by the steering wheel к on the captain’s ... 2. The ... are mechanically actuatedby bellcranks pushrods. 3 . Utilization of the steering depressurization valve allo- throughout the full steering range. 4. Steering is controlled by the the captain’s side panel, or by the rudder pedals.
Exercise 26, Translate into English.
1. Шасі, розташоване нижче шпангоута кабіни керув забезпечує опору для передньої секції фюзеляжа. 2. Носова с приводиться в дію гідравлічно, щоб забрати колесо вперед та вго нішу колеса 3. Гідравліка використовується для звича* випускання та забирання шасі. 4. Керування носовим кол здійснюється на землі для рулювання та зльоту. 5. На основ шасі встановлено гальма, що можуть керуватися вручну автоматично. .ercise 27. Read and retell text 6.
Text 6. Antiskid System.
Maximum allowable braking for the condition of the runway is achieved with a modulating antiskid system that senses individual wheel speed during a stop and automatically controls brake pressure to each wheel.
The antiskid system optimizes braking by reducing brake pressure when the pilot or autobrake system commands pressure in excess of that required to skid the tires. The control unit analyzes wheel sensor puts and sends appropriate signals to the antiskid valves which reduce the metered pressure supplied from the brake metering valves, or autobrake system. The system consists of four individual wheel speed transducers, one control unit, and six antiskid control valves. (Four normal and two alternate antiskid valves). Antiskid protection is provided for individual wheels in the NORMAL brake system and for pairs of wheels on the same landing gear through the alternative antiskid valves if hydraulic system В is inoperative.
The antiskid ‘ON-OFF’ switch is common to both normal and alternate braking systems. Turning the antiskid switch to ‘OFF’ turns off antiskid protection to all wheels and illuminates the ‘ANTISKID INOP’ light If an antiskid system fault is detected during normal flight operations the ‘ANTISKID INOP’ light will illuminate reminding the pilots that full antiskid protection may not be available. The antiskid system contains self-test features.
Ground test features are built into the antiskid control unit for maintenance purposes. The antiskid control unit front panel includes itiskid system fault isolation provisions (normal and alternate), an ..tobrake test capability, and lights to assist in troubleshooting. Precise performance and calibration checks can be made through test receptacles »cated on the control unit.
Exercise 28. Write out of text 7 two-, three-, four- and five-noun word combinations, give their translation.
Text 7. Brake System
The brake system consists of multi-disc brakes for each main gear wheel powered by either hydraulic system. Hydraulic system В operates the normal braking system. Hydraulic system A is the primary
backup and is automatically selected by the alternative brake se valve if system В is lost. The accumulator is the secondary backup automatically selected by the accumulator isolator valve if both the. В systems are lost. The brake system provides the following features:
Simplified brake service and maintenance requirements Directional control through differential braking
Identical brake control from either pilot station ' Full antiskid protection
Autobrakes for landing or refused takeoff (R.TO)
Hydraulic brake line fuses to limit fluid loss folio* failure.
During gear retraction, braking is applied automatically main gear wheels to stop wheel rotation after takeoff. Nose wheel r is stopped by snubbing pads in the wheel well.
Exercise 29. Speak on the following topics.
The lending gear functions.
The main landing gear design.
The nose landing gear design.
Landing gear actuation.
Exercise 30. Choose the most suitable sentence to finish the text
At the beginning of the main leg retraction the large doors well get open and at the end of leg retraction they get fully closed, closed position the doors are locked by the mechanical lock controlled by the up-lock.
The small door of the main leg well slowly gets closed process of landing gear retraction.
The landing gear main legs are provided with wheels.
3 . In the retracted position the main leg is retained by the up-1
1 Now, let’s consider the power plant as one of the principle structural units of the airplane. I think you know the meaning of the term
g. Yes, I do. The term ‘power plant’ means ‘силова установка’.
T. What does it provide?
S. As far as I remember it provides power for flight.
T. Does it propel (he airplane in flight?
S. Yes, it does.
T. The power plant contains an engine or engines and some systems.
What is the essential part of the power plant?
S. Let me see. The engine provides power for flight, so it is the most essential part of the power plant.
T .1 am sure you know that there exist some types of engines. Can you name at least some of them?
S. 1 know two types of engines' piston and jet engines.
T You are right. But you should know that jet engines are divided into three groups: gas-turbines, ram jets and rocket engines. Ram jet engine is translated into Ukrainian ‘прямоточний повітряно- реактивний двигун’.
Exercise 1. Read and translate text 1.
Text 1. Power Plant
The power plant is one of the principal structural units of the airplane. The power plant is a source of power. It provides power for flight and propels the airplane. The power plant contains an engine or engines and some systems. The engine is the most essential part of the power plant. Its function is to provide thrust.
There are several types of aviation engines, namely: piston or internal combustion engines and jet engines. Jet engines are divided into three main groups: gas turbines, ram jets and rocket engines. As for the systems they are the fuel system, oil engine control system, fire-extinguishing system, cooling system some others.
The fijnction of the fuel system is to provide fuelli defuelling, fuel jettisoning and fuel transfer.
The oil system serves for supplying oil to the engine reducing friction between moving parts.
The engine control system is used to control the engine.
The fire-extinguishing system is used to detect fire, warn suppress fire. The function of the cooling system is to protect engine assembly and different systems from overheating.
to provide power for flight, to propel an airplane, to consist of engines and systems, to provide thrust* to fuel an engine, to. control engines : and systems, to supply oil, to reduce friction, to detect fire, to warn the pilots about the fire.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions.
1. What is the power plant? 2. What does the power plant contain? 3. What provides thrust? 4. What types of aviation engines are used in modem airplanes? 5, What systems of the power plant can you name? 6, What is the function of the fuel system? 7. What system is used to control the engine? 8. What system serves for cooling the engine assembly?
Exercise 7. Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the
1. The wing is a source of power. 2. The power plant contains an engine or engines and some systems. 3. Jet engines are divided into б groups. 4. The function of the fuel system is to provide aircraft take off and landing. 5. The oil system is used for supplying oil to (he fuel tank.
Exercise 8. Remember the meanings of the following words, to power - бути джерелом потужності; обладнувати силовою установкою; приводити в дію to mount - встановлювати; кріпити, монтувати bypass-ratio - ступінь двоконтурності spool - каскад
The 737 airplanes are powered by two wing-mounted 56-3 high- bypass-ratio turbofan engines at several thrust ratings.
The engine is an axial-flow turbofan with two spools variable stator vanes. Power for aircraft and engine accessories provided by the main gearbox side-mounted on the fan case, gearbox is driven by the high-speed engine shaft.
The A-3I0 is a widebody transport powered by two engines. CFM-56-5 engines are installed under die wing.
The APU is located in the aft end of the fuselage, behind pressure bulkhead and below the horizontal stabilizer. The provides an alternate source of electric power both on the ground flight.
Exercise 10. Copy out aviation terms from text 2.
Exercise 11. Speak on “Power plant”.
Exercise 12. Read, translate and make a short summary of text English.
Text3. Type of Airplanes
There is a wide variety of airplane types. Land planes, earner-1: airplanes, seaplanes, amphibians, vertical takeoff and tending (VTOL), takeoff and landing (STOL), and