space shuttles all take advantage of tlx basic technology, but then capabilities and uses make them seem only< related.
Land planes are designed to operate from a hard surface, i paved runway. Some tend planes are specially equipped to operate from or other unfinished surfaces. A land plane usually has wheels to taxi, take
Carrier-based airplanes are a specially modified type of land plane designed for takeoff' from and landing aboard naval aircraft earners. Carrier airplanes have a strengthened structure, including their landing gear, to handle the stresses of catapult-assisted takeoff in which the craft is launched by a steam-driven catapult; and arrested landings, made by using a hook attached to the underside of the aircraft's tail to catch one of four wires strung across the flight deck of the carrier.
Seaplanes, sometimes called floatplanes or pontoon planes, are often ordinary land planes modified with floats instead of wheels so they can operate from water A number of seaplanes have been designed firm scratch to operate only from water bases. Such seaplanes have fuselsges that resemble and perform like ship hulls. Known as flying boats, they may have small floats attached to their outer wing panels to help steady them at low speeds on the water, but the weight of the airplane is bone by the floating hull.
Amphibians, like their animal namesakes, operate from both water and land bases. In many cases, an amphibian is a true seaplane, with a boat hull and the addition of specially designed landing gear that can be extended to allow the airplane to taxi right out of the water onto land Historically, some flying boats were fitted with so-called beaching gear» a system of cradles on wheels positioned under the floating aircraft, wWch then aflowed the aircraft to broiled onto land
Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) airplanes typically use the jet thrust from their engines, pointed down at the Earth, to take off and land straight up and down. After taking off a VTOL airplane usually transitions to wing-borne flight in order to cover a longer distance or carry a significant bad. A helicopter is a type of VTOL aircraft, but there are very few VTOL airplanes. One unique type of VTOL aircraft is the tilt-rotcr, which has large, propeller-like rotating wings or rotors driven by jet engines at the wingtips.
For take-off and landing, the engines and rotors are positioned vertically, like a helicopter. After takeoff however, the engmefrotar combination forward, and the wing takes on the load of the craft
The most prominent example of a true VTOL airplane flying the AV-8B Hamer П, a military attack plane that uses rotating no attached to its jet engine to direct toe engine exhaust in the appropr direction. Flown m the United States by the Marine Corps, es well as in S Italy, India, and United Kingdom, where it was originally developed, Harrier can take off vertically from smaller ships, or it can be flc operating areas near the ground troops it supports m its ground-attack role. Short Take-off and Landing Airplanes Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) airplanes are designed able to function on relatively short runways. Their designs usually wings and high-lift devices on toe wings optimized for best pert* during takeoff and landing, as distinguished from an airplane that has a optimized for high-speed спще at high altitude. STOL airplanes are cargo airplanes, although some serve in a passenger-carrying capacity as Space Shuttle
The space shirtie, flown by the National Aeronautics and Administration (NASA), is an aircraft unlike any other because it flies fixed-wing airplane within toe atmosphere and as a spacecraft outside Earths atmosphere. When the space shuttle takes off ft flies like a rocket wings, relying on toe 3,175 metric tons of thrust generated by its solid-: rocket boasters and liquid-fueled main engines to power its way up, and out of toe atmosphere. During lending, the shuttle becomes toe most sophisticated glider, landing without propulsion.
Exercise 13. Copy out aviation terns from text 3.
Exercise 14. Speak on:
4 Vertical Take-off and Landing Airplanes.
Exercise IS. Make a written translation of text 4.
Test 4 Classes of Airplanes
Airplanes can be grouped into a handful of major classes, such as commercial, military, and general-aviation airplanes, all of which fell under different government-mandated certification and operating rules
Commercial aircraft are those used for profit making usually by carrying cargo or passengers for hire. They are strictly regulated—in the United States, by foe Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Canada, by Transport Canada; and in other countries, by other national aviation authorities.
Modem large commercial-airplane manufacturers—such as The Boeing Company and Airbus Industry, a consortium of European manufacturers from Britain, Germany, France, and Spain—offer a wide variety of aircraft with different capabilities. Today’s jet airliners cany anywhere from 1TO passengers to more than500owr short and long distances.
Since 1976 the British-French Concorde supersonic transport has earned passengers at twice foe speed of sound Ihe Concorde flies for British Airways and Air France, flag earners of the two nations that funded its development during the late 1960s and 1970s.
Military aircraft are usually grouped into four categories: combat, cargo, training, and observation. Combat airplanes же generally either filters or bombera, although some airplanes have both capabilities. Fighters are designed to engage in air combat with other airplanes, in either defensive or offensive situations. Since the 1950s many fighters have been capable of Mach 2+ flight (a Mach number represents foe ratio offoe speed of an airplane to the speed of sound as it travels through air). Some fighters have a ground-attack role as well and are designed to cany bofo air-to-air weapons, such as missiles, and air-to-ground weapons, such as bombs. Fighters include aircraft such as the Panavia Tornado, the Boeing F-1S Eagle, foe Lockheed-Martin F-16 Falcon, the MiG-29 Fulcrum, and the Su-27 Flanker.
Bombers are designed to carry large air-to-ground-weapons loads and either penetrate or avoid enemy air defenses in order to deliver those weapons. Some well-known bombers include foe BoeingB-52, foe BoeingB-1, and tlie Ncrthrop-Grumman B-2 stealth bomber. Bombers, such as the B-52, are designed to fly fast at low attitudes, following the terrain, in order to %
under enemy radar defenses, while others, such as die B-2, may sophisticated radar-defeatir^ technologies to fly virtually unobserved
Today's military cargo airplanes are capable of carrying < tanks, armored personnel camera, artillery pieces, and even smaller: Cargo planes such as the giant Lockheed C~5B and Boeing C-17 designed expressly tor such roles. Some cargo planes can serve a dual i aerial gas stations, refueling different types of military airplanes while in j Such tankers include the Boeing KC-135 and KC-10. All military pile through rigorous training and education programs using military airplanes to prepare them to fly the high-performance aircraft of the farces. They typically begin the flight training in relatively simple, airplanes and move into basic jets before specializing in a career path imroti fighters, bombers, or transports. Some military trainers include the Mentor, the T-37 and T-38, and the Boeing T-45 Goshawk.
A final category of military airplanes is the observation, ] reconnaissance, aircraft With the advent of the Lockheed U-2 spy plane і 1950s, observation airplanes were developed solely fix highly missions. The ultimate spy plane is Lockheeds SR-71, a two-seat airplane] uses specialized engines and fuel to reach altitudes greater than 25,< (80,000 ft) and speeds well over Mach 3.
General-aviation aircraft are certified fix and intended primari noncommercial or private operations.
Pleasure aircraft range from simple single-seat, ultralight airpb to sleek twin turboprops capable of carrying eight people.
Business aircraft transport business executives to mess airplane aft-weather capability.
Another class of general-aviation airplanes are those agriculture. Large farms require efficient ways to spread fertilizer insecticides over a large arm Avery specialized type of airplane, crop < are rugged, highly maneuverable, and capable of hauling several pounds of chemicals. They can be seen swooping low over farm fields.^ intended for serious cross-country navigation, crop dusters lade s navigation aids and complex systems.
Exercise 16. Speak on ‘Airplane classification’.
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF ТВОЕ GAS TURBINE ENGINE
X. You know that one of the principal structural units of the aeroplane is the engine. The engine is the largest and the most important part of the airplane. What does the engine provide?
S. The engine provides power and propels the airplane.
T. You are right. What types of the airplane engines do you know?
S. As far as I remember there are two types of engines: piston and jet engines.
T. Quite right. Jet engines are divided into some groups; gas-turbine engines are among them. We’ll consider the major components of the g3S-turbine engine. Any gas-turbine engine consists of three main sections and some additional components. The main sections are the compressor section, the combustion section and the turbine section. “Combustion” means “згорання”. What sections does any gas-turbine engine consist of?
S. Any gas-turbine engine consists of three main sections: the compressor section, the combustion section and the turbine section.
T. It s O.K. The compressor is located after the inlet ductrlhe term “inlet duct” is translated as “повітрозабирач”. At the front seption of the engine there is an opening, or a hole. The air enters the engine through this opening (hole). This opening or a hole is called “inlet”. What does the engine inlet mean?
S.“Вхідний пристрій двигуна”.
T. That’s quite right. The engine air inlet consists of the opening with passages. This passage is called “a duct”. The term “duct” means “труба, канал”. So we may say, the air enters the engine through the inlet duct. What does tire inlet duct do?
S The inlet duct helps the air enter the engine.
T. That’s. It’s better to say: it supplies the air to die engine. The passage or the duct leads to the guide vanes. The term “guide vane” means “спрямовуюча лопатка”. Guide vanes serve to direct the air to the compressor. The guide vanes are located in the inlet duct. What form does the inlet duct have?
S. It seems to me the inlet ducts have different forms.
T. It’s right It depends upon the design of the aeroplane. From the duct with the help of guide vanes the air flows to the compressor, w’ it is compressed. The verb “to compress” means “стискати”. Is compressor that portion of the engine where the air is compressed?
S. Yes, it is. The compressor is the major component of any gas-t engine. Its function is to compress the air.
T. Besides, the compressor provides necessary pressure ratio. The “pressure ratio” means “необхідний ступінь стиснення”. From compressor section through the diffuser the compressed air flows to combustion section where it is burned with the fuel. What does the \ “combustion” mean?
S. The term “combustion” means “згорання”.
T. So the process of combustion takes place in the combustion secti The term “combustion chamber” is translated as “камера агора What is the function of the diffuser?
S. To my mind the function of the diffuser is to direct air from compressor to the combustion chamber.
T. Well, it is. The second function is also to change air pressure velocity. The gases from the combustion chamber through the no diaphragm go to the turbine section. The turbine section is designe extract power from the jet stream to drive the compressor accessories. The word “accessories” means “допоміжні aiper What does the turbine wheel extract?
S. The turbine wheel extracts power from the jet stream and drives compressor and accessories.
T. That’s correct. The nozzle diaphragm is translated “согоюв апарат” It is located between the combustion chamber and section. What is the function of the nozzle diaphragm?
S, The function of the nozzle diaphragm is to increase the velocity the heated gases
S. is there any additional section behind the turbine wheel?
T. Yes, there is. It is the exhaust cone. The term “exhaust cone” me “конус реактивного сопла”.
j. Its main function is to collect discharged gases from the turbine ^heel and expel them at the correct velocity.
Exercise 1. Listen to the recording, read and learn, д. afterburner - форсажна камера bottom - нижня частина, низ, основа bucket- лопатка турбіни burn - спалювати, горіти burner - камера згорання compress - стискати compression - стиснення compressor - компресор diffuser-дифузор direct - направляти, націлювати drive - керувати, приводити до руху, вести expand- розширювати extract - отримувати flow - потік, течія; текти locate - встановлювати, розміщувати need - необхідність, потреба; мати потребу serve - служити strike - вдаряти, вдарити supply - живити; живлення, забезпечення velocity - швидкість
В. accessory section - відсік агрегатів, секція допоміжних агрегатів additional amount - додаткова кількість air stream - повітряний потік exhaust сопе - конус реактивного сопла guide vane - спрямовуюча лопатка heated gases - нагріті гази inlet duct - повітрозабирач jet stream - реактивний потік nozzle diaphragm - сопловий апарат nozzle vane - лопатка соплового апарата provide transition - забезпечити перехід required pressure ratio - необхідний ступінь стиснення
Exercise 2. Listen to the recording. Repeat in the intervals, and translate tract 1.
Text 1. Major Components of the Gas Turbine Engine
Any gas turbine engine consists of three main sections: compressor section, die combustion section and the turbine section, air enters the engine through the inlet duct and guide vanes.
The function of the inlet duct and guide vanes is to supply > the engine inlet under all conditions of operation. Aircraft engine ' ducts have various shapes. From the inlet duct die air flows to compressor. The compressor is located after the inlet duct. The fun of the compressor is to compress air and to provide the pressure ratio. From die compressor section through the diffuser compressed air flows to the combustion section. There the combi chamber is located
The function of the combustion chamber is to expand the air burning fuel in the air stream.
The turbine section of the engine is located after the combi chamber between two additional components: the nozzle diaphragm exhaust cone. The turbine section is designed to extract power from jet stream to drive the compressor and accessories.
The diffuser, the nozzle diaphragm, the exhaust cone, afterburner and the accessory section serve to provide transition one main section to another. The diffuser directs air from compressor to the combustion chamber and serves to c‘ pressure and velocity. A typical nozzle diaphragm consists of a grc nozzle vanes. The function of the nozzle diaphragm is to increase velocity of the heated gases and to direct them to strike the buckets at the proper angle.
The exhaust cone is located directly behind the turbine and its main function is to collect burned gases from the turbine and expel them at the correct velocity. In many cases the afterb" used with turbojet engines. The afterburner serves for b- additional amount of fuel to increase power.
Met duct and
Compressor section -
Exercise 3. Make sure you remember the major and additional components of the gas turbine engine.
Exercise 4. Read, translate and remember these propositions: in front of, at the nose, before, after, between, behind, below, beyond, near, down, above, inside, outside, round, towards, under, up, with, from, through, to, at the bottom.
Exercise 5. Use prepositions or adverbs if necessary.
Exercise 6. Combine Де following words into sentences. Model: The inlet duct supplies air to Де engine inlet.
to compress Де air. to provide Де required pressure ratio, to expand Де air by burning fuel in Де air stream.
to extract power from Де jet stream to drive Де compressor and accessories, to direct air from Де compressor to Де combustion chamber, to increase Ae velocity of Де heated
1. ... the inlet duct the air flows ... the compressor. 2. The compressor is located ... die inlet duct. 3.... Де compressor section... the diffuser Де compressed air flows ... Де combustion section. 4. The combustion section is located ... Де diffuser and Де nozzle diaphragm. 5. The turbine section of Де engine is located ... Де combustion chamber ... two additional components: Де nozzle diaphragm and exhaust cone. 6. The exhaust cone is located... Де turbine wheel.
to collect burned gases from Де turbine wheel.
to bum additional amount of fuel to I increase power. Exercise 7. Complete the following sentences.