Exercise 14. Match the English terms in the left column and their Ukrainian equivalents in the right column.
секція допоміжних агрегатів конус реахтивного сопла спрямовуюча лопатка вхідний отвір двигуна ступінь стиснення
Exercise 15. Match synonymous expressions.
burned gas burner air intake airflow reheat unit blade
лопатка соплового апарата колесо турбіни сопловий аппарат
pressure ratio engine inlet guide vane accessory section exhaust cone
камера згорання лопатка турбіни
combustion chamber inlet
air stream afterburner exhaust gas
Exercise 16. Make up sentences using these verb-combinati
to enter the engine, to supply air, to have various to compress air, to provide the required pressure ratio, to cxx to bum fuel, to extract power, to drive the compressor, to transition, to increase the velocity, to strike the turbine b' to change air pressure, to collect burned gases.
Exercise 17. Say if the following statements are true or ft they are wrong, correct them.
1. Any gas turbine engine consists of four main sections.; air enters the engine through the compressor section. 3. The comp is located after the combustion chamber. 4. The function о combustion chamber is to compress die air. 5. The turbine section engine is used to provide the required pressure ratio.
Exercise 18. Translate into English.
необхідний ступінь стиснення, колесо відпрацьований газ, реактивний потік, камера згорання, допоміжних агрегатів, додаткова кількість палива,
1. What main section does any gas turbine engine consist of ?
What enters the engine through the inlet duct and guide vanes?
Where is the compressor located ? 4. What is the function of the compressor? 5. What air flows through the diffuser to the < combustor? 6. What is located after the combustoin chamber? 7. What section is designed to extract power from the jet stream for driving the compressor and accessories? 8. What components serve to provide transition from one main section to another? 9. Where does die diffuse* idirect the air? 10. What is the function of theiexhaust cone? 11. Where' is the accessory section located?
Exercise 20. Put questions to the underlined words.
1. The air enters the engine through the inlet duct and guide vanes. 2. The function of the inlet duct and guide vanes is to supply air to the engine inlet under all conditions of operation.3. The compressor is located after the inlet duct 4. The function of the compressor is to compress air and to provide the required pressure ratio. 5. The diffuser directs air from the compressor to the combustion chamber. 6. The diffuser serves to change air pressure and velocity. 7. A typical nozzle diaphragm consists of a group of nozzle vanes. 8. The function of the nozzle diaphragm is to increase the velocity of die heated eases and to direct them to strike the turbine buckets. 9. The function of the combustion chamber is to expand the air bv burning fuel in the air stream. 10. The turbine section of the engine is located after the combustion chamber 11. The turbine section is designed to extract power from the jet stream for driving the compressor and accessories.
Exercise 21. Add question tags and answer them.
Hie air enters tile engine through the inlet duct and vanes, ... ? 2. The function of the inlet duct and guide vanes is to air to the engine inlet under all conditions of operation, ...? 3. function of the compressor is to compress air and to provide required pressure ratio,... ? 4. The diffuser directs air from compressor to the combustion chamber, ... ? 5. The function of combustion chamber is to expand the air by burning fttel in the stream, ... ? 6. The turbine section of the engine is located the combustion chamber, ...? 7. The turbine section is desi extract power from the jet stream for driving the compressor accessories,... ?
Exercise 22. Give information about the main and additi sections of tiie gas turbine engine.
Exercise 23. Use the verb in brackets in the correct tense (Active or Passive).
The engine (to be) tiie largest and the most important; the airplane.
Any gas-turbine engine (to consist of) three main sections some additional components.
The air (to enter) the engine through the inlet duct
Guide vanes (to serve) to direct the air to the compressor.
The guide vanes (to locate) in the inlet duct.
The inlet ducts (to have) different forms.
The compressor (to provide) necessary pressure ratio.
The combustion chamber (to locate)after the compressor.
The turbine section (to design) to extract) power from die jet stream for driving the compressor and accessories.
The diffuser, the nozzle diaphragm, the exhaust cone, the afterburner and the accessory section (to serve) to provide transition from one main section to another.
Exercise 24. Translate into English.
1. Призначення давітрозабираяа подавати повітря у двигун. 2. Повітрозабирачі мають різні форми. 3. Конструкція повітрозабирача доволі проста. 4. Направляючі лопатки спрямовують повітря в компресор. 5. Конструкція повітрозабирача має багато переваг, б. Повітрозабирач складається із зовнішнього і внутрішнього кожуха. 7. Компресор - це та частина двигуна, де повітря стискається. 8. Камера згорання знаходиться між дифузорним і сопловим апаратами. 9. Функція камери згорання - розширювати повітря шляхом спалювання палива в повітряному потоці. 10. Секція турбіни двигуна зхонструйована для того, щоб забирати енергію від високошвидкісних газів, що залишають камеру згорання, для того, щоб приводити в дію компресор та його агрегати.
Exercise 2S. Translate and entitle text 2.
There are many types of aviation gas-turbine engines. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages. But for the operation of any gas-turbine engine three principal functions should be provided: 1) the compression of air, 2) the expansion of the air by burning fuel; 3) the extraction of power from the jet stream of the engine to drive the
compressor and accessories Thus, we may say, that a gas-turb: engine includes three main sections: the compressor section,- combustion section and the turbine section and the accessory section.
The accessory section is located at the nose of the engine or at bottom of the engine. The accessory section includes the accesso needed for engine operation and also those required for the operation the aircraft
Some gas-turbine engines have but one accessory power secti while others may have more. Accessories provide the normal opera* of the engine.
Exercise 26. Write out from texts 1, 2 all the terms referring: the topic “Major Components of the Gas-turbine Engine”.
Exercise 27. Make up the plan of texts 1,2.
Exercise 28. Speak on:
Major components of the gas-turbine engine.
Additional components of the gas-turbine engine.
Unit VIII. COMPRESSOR
Exercise 1. Remember the active vocabulary, gas turbine - газова турбіна
air intake - вхідний пристрій, отвір для забору повітря centrifugal compressor - відцентровий компресор axial (-flow) compressor - осьовий компресор split compressor - двовальний компресор low pressure compressor - компресор низького тиску rotary air compressor - роторний компресор propeller - повітряний гвинт
specific fuel consumption - питома витрата пального
Exercise 2. Read and translate dialogue 1.
T. As you know the compressor is one of the major components of any gas-turbine engine. Do you remember the other two components of a gas-turbine engine?
S. They are: the combustion chamber and the turbine wheel.
T Yes, quite right. Three major components of any gas-turbine engine are: the compressor, the combustion chamber and the turbine wheel. And what is the function of the compressor? Answering this question use the model - The function of... is to....
S. The function of the compressor is to compress the passing air.
T. What does the air pass through?
S. It passes through the engine.
T. Quite right. And now let's see what the word combination "pr ratio “ means. You know the word "pressure" -“стискання”
S. The word combination "pressure ratio" means "ступінь стискання
T. Good.. What is the English for "забезпечувати ступінь стиск
S. To provide pressure ratio.
T. That’s correct. What is the English for "необхідна c стискання"? Write down the word "to require" and its derivatr "required” (потрібний, необхідний.) “requirement" (вимога) . now, who can translate the phrase?
S. It is "required pressure ratio".
T. And now translate the whole expression - забезпечувати необ: ступінь стискання.
S. It's “ to provide the required pressure ratio”.
T. That's correct. And now as you know more about the comp could you give the full answer to the question : What's the of the compressor?
S. The function of the compressor is to compress the air passing thr the engine and to provide a required pressure ratio.
T. Good. Thank you Now we shall consider types of the compre What are they?
S. They are: the centrifugal type, the axial single-rotor type and the: split compressor type.
T. Who will translate these terms into Ukrainian?
S. Відцентровий, осьовий, двовальний.
T. Right you are. The centrifugal type compressor produces a pressure ratio in a single stage. "Stage" means " ступінь".Опе blades is called a stage. Row -ряд. The centrifugal type comp easy to manufacture, it is durable and low in cost. Durable -:
You know the meaning of the word "low", bn what word combir did you happen to use it?
S. Lowered position - опущене положення , lower half - половиш.
T. That’s correct. And the word combination "low in cost" is transla "дешевий". Could you give the antonym to it.
Text 1. Compressors and their types
One of the major components of any gas-turbine engine is the compressor. The function of the compressor is to compress the air passing through the engine and to provide a required pressure ratio. The compressor causes a pressure rise in the air delivered.
There are three basic types of compressors: the centrifugal type, the axial single rotor type and the axial split compressor type. The centrifugal compressor works very well in smaller turboprop and turbojet engines. It cannot provide the necessary pressure ratio for modem gas- turbine engines. But this type is easy to manufacture, it is durable, low in cost. Typical pressure ratio obtainable with a centrifugal compressor is 5 to 1.
The axial-flow compressor is more efficient than the centrifugal compressor. It can provide pressure ratio of 12 to 1. But it is more complicated in construction mid therefore higher in cost
Axial-split compressor can provide pressure ratio of 20 to l.But it is of a very complicated design. It is not easy to manufacture and, of course, rather high in cost. The split compressor provides the highest pressure ratio and is widely used in modem gas turbine engines.
Exercise 4. Find in text 1 ten words that can be used both as noun and a verb. Give their translation.
Model: check - to check
перевірка - перевіряти Exercise 5. Answer the questions on text 1.
1.1s a compressor one of the major components of a gas-turbine engine? 2. What is the function of the compressor? 3. What air does the
compressor compress? 4 What are three basic types of air compres 5. What pressure ratio does the centrifugal compressor produce? 6. centrifugal compressor easy to manufacture? 7. What ratio is obtaii with a centrifugal compressor? 8.Which compressor is more effici| the centrifugal or the axial compressor? 9. What compressor can prc .pressure ratio of 12 to 1? 10. What pressure ratio can the
Exercise 6. Translate the following universal words without a diction airplane, atmosphere, centre, classify, compressor, equivalent, fact, gas, generator, mass, mechanically, normal, optii plan, result, system, temperature, turbine type, limit, comf calculate, experiment, aerodynamic, total, diameter.
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations.
major components, required pressure ratio, modem gas-t engine, axial-flow compressor, turbojet engine, axial-split cc turboprop engine, efficient compressor, low air pressure, high efficic
Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words.
1 This engine works on a four-stroke cycle, consisting of induction, compression, combustion and exhaust. 2. Airplanes use thrust to propel them through air. 3. A gas turbine engine consists of two main rotating parts, a compressor and a turbine. 4. The rocket engine does not use atmospheric air as the propulsive fluid stream.
Exercise 12. Paraphrase the sentences according to the model.
1 The compressor produces a high pressure ratio. 2. The diffuser directs air from the compressor to the combustion chamber. 3. The combustion chamber expands the air by burning fuel. 4. The turbine wheel extracts power from the gas stream.
Exercise 13. Translate text 2 in writing and entitle it.
Three basic types of air compressors are used in gas-turbine engines: the centrifugal type, the axial single rotor type and the axial-split compressor type. Each of these compressors has its advantages and disadvantages. The centrifugal type compressor produces a high-pressure ratio in a single stage. It is easy to manufacture, durable and low in cost. The axial-flow compressor is more efficient than the centr flow compressor and it will handle a larger volume of air for a diameter. It also provides higher pressure ratios than are possible centrifugal compressor.
The axial-split compressor provides very high pressure r 20:1. But it is of a very complicated design. It is not easy to manuft and, of course, rather high in cost.
Exercise 14. Read and translate dialogue 2.
And now let's consider the structure of the centrifugal comp The centrifugal compressor consists of the rotor and stator, centrifugal compressor rotor consists of the impeller, the guide v and two stub shafts. The impeller means "крильчатка, на- Give the meaning of the word “shaft”.
Good. And the "stub shaft" means - "кореневий вал".
This is the impeller. This is the single-sided or the singleentry impeller. "Entry” is “в? So, "the single-entry" or “the single-sided impeller" means "одновхідна” or "одностор крильчатка”.
Look at this picture (Fig.VIII.l)
T. What impeller does Fig.VIII. 1 illustrate?
S. It illustrates the single-sided or the single-entry impeller.
T. Look at this picture (Fig. VIII,2)
This is the double-sided or the double-entry impeller. Most gas turbine engines of the centrifugal type utilize the double-sided impeller.
Text 3. Centrifugal Flow Compressor
The centrifugal compressor consists of the rotor and stator. The centrifugal compressor rotor consists of the impeller, the guide vanes and two stub shafts.
The rotor is mounted by means of two bearings: the ball bearing and the roller bearing. The ball bearing is mounted on the front shaft. The roller bearing supports the rear stub shaft.
Some engines use a single-sided or a single-entry impeller, others use a double-sided or a double-entry impeller. Most gas-turbine engines of the centrifugal types utilize the double-sided impeller as it reduces the overall diameter of the engine.
The multistage centrifugal compressors consist of two or more single -entry compressors mounted on the same shaft.
The air compressed by the first stage is passed on to the stage. This stage further compresses the air before passing it on another stage if there is one*.
*- if there is one- якщо така існує.
Exercise 16. Answer the questions on text 2.
1. What does the centrifugal compressor consist of? 2. Whai sists of the impeller, guide vanes and two stub shafts? 3. Where ball bearing mounted? 4. What bearing supports the rear stub 5. What impeller does die centrifugal compressor utilize? 6. Why d gas turbines of the centrifugal type utilize the double-sided ir 7. What does the multi-stage centrifugal compressor consist of?
Exercise 17. Translate the verb-noun pairs.
to operate - operation, to compress - compression, to utilization, to reduce - reduction, to enter - entry (entrance), to rotation, to roll - roller, to impell - impeller, to pass - passage, to ■
- development, propel - propeller, to lose -loss, to convert - conversi act-action, to move - motion (movement).
Exercise 18. Translate the words with suffix -multi”.
multi-spar, multi-bladed, multi-engined, multi-nozzle, place, multi-staged, multi-section, multi-position, multi-cl multi - mode, multi-rotor, multi -component, multi-slotted, dimentional, multi-speed.
Exercise 19. Translate “noun + noun” word combinations.
engine design, engine operation, piston engine, air flow bearing, stator blades, compressor casing, compressor rotor, ratio, fuel consumption, compressor stage, air speed, tempe combustion chamber, air intake, gas turbine, fuel-air mixture.
Exercise 20. Fill in the blanks with the words and word combinations given below.
1 .The centrifugal compressor consists of the rotor and... . 2. The rotor is mounted by means of two ... . 3. The double-sided impeller
reduces of the engine. 4 supports the rear stub shaft. 5. The ...
bearing is mounted on the front stub shaft. 6. ... consists of the impeller, the guide vanes and two stub shafts. 7. Most gas-turbine engines of the
centrifugal type utilize impeller. 8 is more efficient than the
(the rotor, the overall diameter, bearings, the double-sided, stator, the roller bearing, ball, the single-sided compressor).
Exercise 21. Make questions to the sentence.
The impeller of a centrifugal compressor is usually constructed of a heat-treated aluminum alloy forging.
1. Is ? 2. What is ? 3. Which impeller ?
4. What of ? 5. What alloy of ?
Exercise 22. Name the terms and translate the sentences.
1. Axial flow compressor is a type of compressor used in a gas turbine engine in which air passes through the compressor in a straight flow from front to rear. 2. Centrifugal flow compressor is a type of compressor in which air is taken into the center of the impeller and is pushed outward centrifugally into a diffuser where it is slowed and pressure is increased. 3. A rotating part of an engine, driven by the low pressure turbine, for air supply to the engine and to the duct around the front part of the engine is a fen .4. The fen provides the major portion of engine thrust.5. Engine pressure ratio is the ratio of inlet pressure to exhaust pressure measurements. 6. The ratio is used as the primary parameter to set thrust on some engines.
Exercise 23. Translate into English.
1 Компресор забезпечує необхідний ступінь стиснення. 2.0дновхідний компресор більш ефективний, ніж двовхідний.
Ротор компресора монтується на двох гадш
Кульковий підшипник підтримує передню частину коре вала. 5. Направляючі лопатки складаються разом з крильч б. У більшості газотурбінних двигунів відцентрового використовується двостороння крильчатка. ТОдяост крильчатка більш ефективна, ніж двостороння. 8. Две крильчатка зменшує загальний діаметр двигуна.
Exercise 24. Translate text 4 in writing and entitle it.
The centrifugal compressor operates by taking in the on and rotating it by means of the impeller. The impeller of the cen' compressor is usually constructed of a heat-treated aluminum forging. The stator of the centrifugal compressor is constructed of treated aluminum alloy casting. The impeller is assembled togeth the guide vanes and the two stub shafts. The two stub shafts provi bearing support for mounting the impeller in the engine. The ball 1 is mounted on the front shaft. The rear stub shaft is supported roller bearing In case of the centrifugal compressor, some use the single-sided or single-entry compressor. This type is a little efficient than the double-sided type but its use requires a larger < for the same result Most gas turbines of the centrifugal type double sided impeller to reduce the diameter of the engine.
The efficiency of the single-stage centrifugal relatively low. It is capable of building up the pressure four or times which is known as the pressure ratio of 4 or 5 to 1.
Exercise 25. Find in text 4 eight words that can be used both as a and a verb. Give their translation.
X. Let's proceed with our theme. Do you remember what the centrifugal compressor consists of?
$. 1 he centrifugal compressor consists of the rotor and stator.
T. Right you are. The axial-flow compressor also consists of the rotor and stator. We considered the structure of the centrifugal compressor rotor, didn't we?
S. Yes, we did It consists of the impeller, guide vanes am! two stub
T. That’s correct. The rotor of the axial-flow compressor consists of several bladed disks. The words “blade” and “vane” are synonyms (лопатка). The word combination “bladed disk” means “диск із лопатками”. These bladed disks are shrunk on the shaft;. The verb “to shrink” (shrink-shrank-shrunk) is translated as “насаджувати в нагрітому стані.” Each row of blades constitutes a stage. The number of stages in the axial compressor varies with the engine design. Look at this picture (Fig.Vni.4) *
Figure VHI.4 shows the components and the assembly of the axial- flow compressor. How many stages are there in this compressor?
S. Let me see. There are nine rows of blades or stages.
T. Yes, this is the “9-stage” compressor because of the 9 rows of the compressor blades. As in the centrifugal compressor the rotor is mounted by two bearings: a roller bearing and a ball bearing. The axial compressor stator consists of two half cylinders. You can easily guess the meaning of the words “cylinder" and “half cylinder”. Т. That's correct The stator blades are used to redirect the air fr stage to the next. You know the meaning of the word to направляти. The prefix “re” means “пере”. What is the “redirect” then?
S. They are translated as “циліндр” і “нагавциліндр”;
T. Good. These two half cylinders are bolted through flanges. “FI means “фланець”. What is the Ukrainian for “to bolt through fl
S. “Закріплювати за допомогою фланця”.
S. I think “змінювати напрям, переспрямовувати”.
T. Right you are. These stator blades can be shrouded and unshro “Shrouded” is “ ті, що мають бавдаж.” The prefix “un-” suppli negative meaning to the word. So, what is “unshrouded”?
S. Ті, що не мають бандажа.
T. That's correct.
Exercise 27. Read and translate text 5.
Text 5. Axial-Flow Compressor
The axial-flow compressor also consists of the rotor and the The rotor of axial compressor consists of several bladed disks: the shaft. Each row of blades constitutes a stage The number of the axial compressor varies with the engine design. The compressor of this type consists of 11 bladed disks shrunk on a steel and enclosed in an outer casing It is called an “11-stage” со because of the 11 rows of compressor blades. Modem axial-flow may have as many as 17 stages. As in the centrifugal compress rotor is mounted by two bearings: the roller bearing and the ball The axial compressor stator consists of two half cylinders bolted t through flanges along the edges. The two halves of them fo: cylinder which is the compressor casing. The stator blades are redirect the air from one stage to the next. They are constructed same manner as the rotor blades and have a similar shape. They shrouded and unshrouded.
Exercise. 28. Answer the questions on text 5.
1. What does the axial-flow compressor consist of? 2, What consists of several bladed disks shrunk on the shaft? 3. What constitutes a stage of tiie compressor? 4. What does the axial compressor stator consist of? 5. What consists of two half cylinders? 6. What is mounted by means of two bearings? 7. What are the stator blades used for? 8. What can be f. vouded and unshrouded?
Exercise 30. Translate the word combinations paying attention to the underlined words.
a hot body - the heat of a body, a deep knowledge - the depth of a river, a long road - the length of a wing, a wide river - the width of an airfoil, a high tree - the height of a ceiling.
Exercise 31. Translate the verbs and their derivatives.
to direct-director-direction; to compress-compressor-compression, to rotate-rotor-rotation; to design-designer; to form-former-formation; to use- usage-useful-useless; to operate-operator-operation, provide - provider - provision.
Exercise 32. Try to guess the meaning of the words in column B. admit - дозволяти, допускати admission of air
1. Осьовий компресор складається з ротора і статора. 2.Декілька дисків із лопатками насаджуються на вал. 3. Ротор осьового компресора складається з декількох дисків із лопатками. 4. Кожен ряд лопаток складає один ступінь. 5. Ротор монтується за
допомогою двох підшипників. 6. Статор складається з нагавциліндрів, які є кожухом компресора. 7. Лопатки с перенаправляют, потік повітря з одного ступеня на інший, конструкцією лопатки можуть бути бандажовані і небандажов
Exercise 37. Check if you remember the following words, assemble - збирати bearing - підшипник ballbearing - кульковий підшипник roller bearing - роликовий підшипник bladeddisk - диск із лопатками casing - кожух casting - відливка compressor rotor - ротор компресора cost - ціна diameter- діаметр double-entry -двовхідний forging - ковка, штамповка half cylinder - напівцилівдр mount - встановлювати, монтувати obtain- отримувати overall - загальний, весь redirect- перенаправляти requirement- вимога rim- обід