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О. К. Юдін, директор Інституту комп’ютерних інформаційних технологій, д-р техн наук, професор

О. К. Юдін, директор Інституту комп’ютерних інформаційних технологій, д-р техн наук, професор




Сторінка11/16
Дата конвертації10.03.2017
Розмір3.1 Mb.
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СЕКЦІЯ «КОМП’ЮТЕРНІ СИСТЕМИ ТА МЕРЕЖІ»


UDC 004.272.2(043.2)

Andreev D.A.,Horiashchenko O.Y.

National Aviation University, Kyiv

THE EVOLUTION OF DSP PROCESSORS

The number and variety of products that include some form of digital signal processing has grown dramatically over the last five years. DSP has become a key component in many consumer, communications, medical, and industrial products. These products use a variety of hardware approaches to implement DSP, ranging from the use of off-the-shelf microprocessors to field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to custom integrated circuits (ICs). Programmable “DSP processors,” a class of microprocessors optimized for DSP, are a popular solution for several reasons.

In comparison to fixed-function solutions, they have the advantage of potentially being reprogrammed in the field, allowing product upgrades or fixes. They are often more cost-effective (and less risky) than custom hardware, particularly for low-volume applications, where the development cost of custom ICs may be prohibitive. And in comparison to other types of microprocessors, DSP processors often have an advantage in terms of speed, cost, and energy efficiency.

DSP processor architectures are evolving to meet thechanging needs of DSP applications. The architecturalhomogeneity that prevailed during the first decade ofcommercial DSP processors has given way to rich diversity.Some of the forces driving the evolution of DSP processorstoday include the perennial push for increasedspeed, decreased energy consumption, decreased memoryusage, and decreased cost, all of which enable DSP processorsto better meet the needs of new and existing applications.

Of increasing influence is the need forarchitectures that facilitate development of more efficientcompilers, allowing DSP applications to be written primarilyin high-level languages. This has become a focal pointin the design of new DSP processors, because DSP applicationsare growing too large to comfortably implement(and maintain) in assembly language. As the needs of DSPapplications continue to change, we expect to see a continuingevolution in DSP processors.

Scientific adviser– S.O. Kudrenko. associate professor
UDC 004.438

Bashunov A.V.

National Aviation University, Kyiv

WEB-APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

The Web became the most ubiquitous distributed application system because it didn’t have to think of itself as a programming environment. Almost every day I see comments or complaints from programmers (even brilliant programmers) muttering about how many strange and inferior parts they have to deal with, how they’d like to fix a historical accident by ripping out HTML completely and replacing it with Canvas, and how separation of concerns is an inconvenience. Everything should be JavaScript. (Apologies to Tom Dale, who tweeted a perfect series of counterpoints just as I was writing. He has visions of rebuilding the rendering stack in JavaScript, but those tweets are not unusual opinions.) So why is the Web better? The Web made it possible to address the project scalability problem, making some key choices that allowed both human and technical distribution of responsibilities. Those choices are compromises, but the balance they achieved lets developers at any level contribute to the Web.



The Front End. In the Beginning, there was HTML. HTML, to be precise, with hypertext links serving as GOTO-like glue. Content, structure, formatting, behavior, and links were all stuck together in text documents, creating Ted Nelson’s worst technical nightmare.
Scientific supervisor – NadtochiyV.I. associate professor
UDC004.383.3 (043.2)

Chaban D.A., Kazimi M.V.I.N.

National Aviation University, Kyiv

INTERPOLATION-DECIMATION CIRCUIT FOR INCREASING OR DECREASING DIGITAL SAMPLING FREQUENCY

With the increasing number of uses of digital technology in signal processing, the need for efficiently translating between various sampling rates has become apparent. Apparatus for increasing or decreasing a digital system sampling rate is required, for example, in the conversion of a digital signal code format, e.g., conversion from delta modulation at one sampling rate to pulse code modulation at a second sampling rate. Another use is the transmission of speech in an analysis synthesis system, such as a vocoder, wherein sampling rate reduction is required for efficient transmission and sampling rate increase is required for regeneration of the speech at the receiving terminal.

A general purpose interpolator-decimator circuit for increasing or decreasing the sampling rate of a digital signal by a factor L/M, where L and M are integers, is disclosed. The circuit includes means for determining each output sample by multiplying a sequence of previous input samples by a set of coefficients and accumulating the resulting products. L sets of coefficients, in which each coefficient is a function of the factors L and M, are stored in a specific sequence which permits sequential addressing of both the coefficients and input signal samples. A multistage decimator cascaded with a multistage interpolator to effect a narrow-band FIR filter is also disclosed.

In other words, in accordance with this invention by a circuit similar in structure to the direct form realization of a finite impulse response (FIR) filter circuit. In accordance with this invention, the filter coefficients are functions of the desired decimation and interpolation factors. More specifically, the interpolation-decimation circuit of this invention employs L sets of filter coefficients, where L is the desired interpolation factor, with a particular set of coefficients being employed to determine the value of each point of the output signal. Each set of coefficients is stored in a memory unit, with coefficients within each set arranged in a specific predetermined order to allow sequential addressing of both the input signal data and the stored coefficients. Embodiments as a single-stage interpolator-decimator and as multiple stage decimators and interpolators to implement a narrow-band FIR filter are included.
Scientific adviser– S.O. Kudrenko. associate professor
UDC 008.2 (043.2)

Cherepovych N.D.

National Aviation University, Kyiv

FIREWALL USING IN COMPUTER NETWORK INFORMATION SECURITY

Nowadaysa hugenumber of networks are united throughthe Internet.You canaccess anynetworkof any organizationfrom virtually any computer. The dangerincreases significantlyfor the reasonthatcomputer hackingto itdoesnotrequirephysical access. Therefore,it is necessaryto take certainprecautions for the safe operationof such a hugesystem.

Network securityproblemremains unresolved, since the vast majority ofcompanies have notaddressedthe issues of security, causing them tobearfinancial losses.

In addition to theinformation theft, the risk can be representedalso by differentattackssuch as "denial of service", theft ofservices etc.

Small organizations, that did notfaced with the questionof information securitybeforeconnection to the Internet,are oftencompletelyunprepared forthe new situation.In manycases, usersof corporate networksare not even awarethattheir databecome available to anyInternet user.

Firewall is one of the best solutions tothe security problemsconnecting to the Internet.It can be setup at every connection to the Internet, therefore subjecting all data flow to careful monitoring.


Scientific supervisor - Fomina N.B. associate professor

UDC 004.415.3(043.2)



Holubovska N.V. , Drozd O.O.

National Aviation University, Kyiv

TECHNOLOGY OF ENCODING VISUAL INFORMATION THROUGH AUDIO SIGNALS

Messaging and social networking applications steadily take the top position among mobile device applications. As the processing power and sophistication of sensors of these devices grow, there are an increasing number of ways to capture and create content and share it with friends. Typically, text, image and video messages are shared directly between devices or indirectly through social networking sites on the Internet.

There is an interesting approach for messaging through audio signals. This approach communicates a message between devices by passing an audio signal with the message written into the spectrogram of the audio signal. The message is authored, converted to an image format (if not already in suitable image form) and written into the spectrogram of an audio signal.

The resulting audio signal can be communicated in a variety of ways. In one particular embodiment, the audio signal is played from a speaker (e.g., of a sending mobile device) and captured through the microphone of a receiving device. In other embodiment, the audio signal is communicated between sending and receiving devices as a voice telephone call, which is communicated via a telecommunication network in any of the ways such voice calls are transmitted. 

To convert the audio signal into a human readable message, the spectrogram of the received audio signal is computed and then rendered to a display screen (e.g., the display of a receiving mobile device).

An advantage of the proposed scheme is that it is insensitive to time scaling (both Linear and Pitch Invariant Time Scaling), audio compression, ambient detection and clock/carrier synchronization between multiple devices. The message may be read by combining with and also independent of any other signaling protocol.

A messaging system includes a message authoring component, a message writing component, message communication components (transmitter and receiver units), and message rendering components.

The image conveyed in the spectrogram may be used to complement messages communicated to/from a mobile device for a variety of applications. These applications include not only sharing messages and posting content for social media and networking applications, but also include communications for mobile payment, mobile shopping, navigation (including indoor positioning and navigation), 2nd screen television, and various combinations thereof, among other applications. In each of these applications, the spectrogram image may be used to convey a graphic or text to serve as a brand identifier, site key, or other form of graphical or textual notification.


Scientific adviser– S.O. Kudrenko. associate professor

UDC 008.2 (043.2)



Huk V.M.

NationalAviationUniversity, Kyiv

NEURAL NETWORKS IN FORECASTING SYSTEMS

Forecasting – is a key point for decision-making in management. The ultimate effectiveness of any solution depends on the sequence of events that occur after the decision. Forecasting results are used to support decision-making.Consequently, the nature of decisions determines the most desirable characteristics of forecasting systems. The study of problem should help to answer the question about what you need to predict, what form should take for forecasting, which time elements are included and what is desirable accuracy.

Qualitative procedures are carried out the subjective evaluation based on expert opinion. Usually, this is a formal procedure for generalized predicting, based on ranking and summarizing the opinions of experts.

The second important step during forecasting systems constructions using neural network – is defining the following three parameters: the forecast period, the forecast horizon and forecasting interval.

Quantitative prediction procedures are clearly declares - how we got a forecast. These methods produce a study of historical data in order to determine the depth of the process that generate a variable and assuming that the process is stable, use knowledge about it to extrapolate the process in the future.

Artificial neuron simulates the properties of a biological neuron. The input of an artificial neuron receives a plurality of signals each of which is the output of another neuron. Each input is multiplied by the corresponding weight, similar to synaptic strength, and all products are summed defining the activation level of the neuron.

The neural network receives the input information and analyzes it in a manner analogous to that our brain is used. During the analysis, the network is studied (gains experience and knowledge) and produces output information on the basis of previously acquired experience.

Neural networks - is very powerful and flexible forecasting mechanism. In determining what is needed to predict, it is necessary to specify the variables that are analyzed and predicted.It is very important the required level of detail.On the using detail level is influenced by many factors: the availability and accuracy of data, analysis costs and user preference prediction results.In situations where the best set of variables is not clear, you can try different alternatives and choose one of the options, which gives the best results. Usually this is used to select the development of forecasting systems based on an analysis of historical data.

There is a convenient way to modify the neural network model as there are new observations. The model works well with the time sequences in which the observation interval is small.


Supervisor – N.B.Fomina, associate professor
УДК 004.55 (043.2)

Dykhner S.M.

National Aviation University,Kyiv

PHP AS WEB-SITE DEVELOPING TOOL

To enhance almost any enterprise web site usage can play an important role. For a client of any of the site there is its Internet presence, a place where you can quickly and easily find information about the company, its services, goods. Such way, the existence of the site was a convenient way of providing information about yourself or your company on the Internet, search potential customers and partners. At present, almost no company can do without his site on the Internet.

Depending on the specific task that the site should solve, it can perform a variety of functions, from simple provision of information to enable shopping or other transactions over the internet (eg online shopping), or the possibility of communicating users via messaging, commenting on various information (eg social networks). The required functionality defined for each site separately.

PHP is language code which can be embedded directly into the html-code pages, in turn, will be properly handled PHP-interpreter. PHP handler just begins to execute code after the opening tag ().

A wide variety of PHP functions makes it possible to avoid writing multi-functions, intended for a customer, as is the case in C or Pascal.


  • The presence of many interfaces to databases

  • built-in PHP library for working with MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQL, Oracle, dbm, Hyperware, Informix, InterBase, Sybase;

  • via standard open interface connection to databases (Open Database Connectivity Standard - ODBC) can connect to all databases to which the driver exists.

  • Efficiency

Efficiency is an important factor in programming environments for multiuser, which include web as well. An important advantage of PHP is that the language belongs to the query languages. This allows scripts to handle at relatively high speed. It is estimated that the majority of PHP-scripts (especially not very large) are processed faster than they are similar programs written in Perl. But even that did the developers of PHP, binaries obtained through compilation work faster - in the tens and sometimes hundreds of times. But the performance of PHP enough to create quite serious web applications.
Supervisor – N.B.Fomina, associate professor

UDC 371.132:656.7 (043.2)



Gram O.M.

KirovogradFlightAcademy of NationalAviationUniversity, Kirovograd
ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC LABORATORY WORKSHOPS

Professional activity of flight dispatchers combines a large number of tasks such as collection and analysis of information, interaction with an aviationpersonnel,workwith specializedcomputer programs. Questionnaireamongstudents, flight dispatchers of airlines revealedthe shortcomingsof traditional flight dispatchers training that point tothe problem ofimproving theeducational aids of such specialists,one of thesolutions towhich thedevelopment and implementation ofelectronic educational aids.

Among thelarge number ofelectronic educational aids electroniclaboratory workshopoccupiesa special place, because contains all thestagescorresponding to thestages ofobservation,experimentandpractical application ofknowledgeinthe scientific methodand itsapplicationin furtherance ofthe activity approachin teachingandformation ofresearch skillsof students in aminimizingthe time andlabor costs.During the research, we considered the electronic laboratory workshopsfrom various training courses such as solvingspecific problems by approximate methods; formationICT-competence of teachers; microcircuitry; generalprofessionaldisciplines;electricalandradio engineering.

Consider electronic laboratory workshop, whichwas developed by I. Ruban, T. Kononovich and itmain objectiveis to usea number ofapproximate methodsfor solvingspecific problems. Creators selected Microsoft HTML Help program for electronic laboratory workshop.

The nextexample isan electroniclaboratory workshopas an aid of forming ICT-competence of futureteachersdevelopedV.H. RyndakandE.E. Polyansky,designed inhypertextmultimediaenvironmentforelectronic media.

The nextexample isa completelaboratory practice workshop ofmicrocircuitryusingthe software packageMatLab,designed by K.A. Kostrubina.

In the KrasnoyarskState Technical Universityfor several yearsare working tocreate electroniceducational methodical complex of the generalprofessionaldisciplines.

A convenientaid for implementingvirtuallaboratory workshop for disciplinesofelectricaland radioprofileiscircuit simulationprogramssuch as«Electronics workbench», «Circuit maker», «Multisim». An effective environment for design of automated laboratory workshop is LabVIEW package.

The analysisof electroniclaboratory workshopson varioussubjects found, thatsuch aidsfortrainingfutureflight dispatchers does not exist,and thereforedecided to developan electroniclaboratoryworkshop inflight planning. The main purposedesignedelectroniclaboratory workshop inflight planningisacquiringof future specialiststhe basic conceptsinflight planningrequiredfor an effective activity of airline, the forming of skills and abilitiesin planningoperations.Electronic laboratory workshop in flight planning is one of the means of formation of professional reliability of flight dispatchers that will determine the ability to solve professional problems arising in real situations.

Scientific supervisor – K.V. Surkova, c.p.s., associate professor

UDC 004.052.42 (043.2)



GrytsailoT.R.

NationalAviation University,Kyiv

DIGITAL FILTERS REALIZATION

Digital filtering has specific characteristics that you need to pay special attention to. The analog input signal must satisfy certain requirements. Furthermore, on converting an output digital signal into analog form, it is necessary to perform additional signal processing in order to obtain the appropriate result.

A new implementation of an IIR digital filter transfer function is presented that is structurally passive and, hence, has extremely low pass-band sensitivity. The structure is based on a simple parallel interconnection of two all-pass sections, with each section implemented in a structurally lossless manner. The structure shares a number of properties in common with wave lattice digital filters. Computer simulation results verifying the low-sensitivity feature are in­cluded, along with results on roundoff noise/dynamic range interaction. A large number of alternatives is available for the implementation of the all-pass sections, giving rise to the well-known wave lattice digital filters as a specific instance of the implementation.

A digital filter is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled, discrete-time signal to reduce or enhance certain aspects of that signal. This is in contrast to the other major type of electronic filter, the analog filter, which is an electronic circuit operating on continuous-time analog signals.

A digital filter system usually consists of an analog-to-digital converter to sample the input signal, followed by a microprocessor and some peripheral components such as memory to store data and filter coefficients etc.

The process of converting an analog signal into digital form is performed by sampling with a finite sampling frequency. If an input signal contains frequency components higher than half the sampling frequency, it will cause distortion to the original spectrum. This is the reason why it is first necessary to perform filtering of an input signal using a low-pass filter that eliminates high-frequency components from input frequency spectrum. This filter is called anti-aliasing filter as it prevents aliasing.

The ability to implement finite impulse response and infinite impulse response filters using different structures in terms of block diagram and signal flow graph shows a great importance, as well as the ability to determine the system transfer function and difference equation given the corresponding block diagram or signal flow graph representation.

Digital filters are used for two general purposes: separation of signals that have been combined, and restoration of signals that have been distorted in some way. Analog (electronic) filters can be used for these same tasks; however, digital filters can achieve far superior results.


Scientific supervisor – associate professor Kudrenko S.O.

UDC 004.7 (043.2)



Kutsa O.V.

National aviation university,Kyiv
Message transmission using ip telephony
Skyrocket of the volume of the transferred data caused to a sharp increase in the proportion of high-speed transport networks, constructed with the use of IP-based technologies. Operators and equipment manufacturers are constantly working on increasing of their carrying capacity.In many respects it caused by popularity of the Internet andconsiderable savings in the construction of the universal transport networks, focused on the transmission of not only telephone traffic, but alsodata of an arbitrary form and structure.

Transmission of the voice traffic directly through IP network is fraught with numerous problems.Some of them are still not completely solved, which may explain the more modest implementation of IP-telephony, compared with forecasts of the early years of the development of this technology.

Voice over Internet Protocol is a category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls by sending voice data in packets using IP rather than by traditional circuit transmissions of the PSTN.

One advantage of VoIP is that the telephone calls over the Internet do not incur a surcharge beyond what the user is paying for Internet access, much in the same way that the user doesn't pay for sending individual emails over the Internet.

Specific routing of messages in a batch mode of transmission of linguistic information implies the existence of multiple paths routing packets to send some messages while driving calls subscribers. This in turn can lead to fluctuations in hearing the voice of the interlocutor and other obstacles conversation. Thus, within a data network quality maintenance calls must meet a certain level of quality . But the diverse nature of operator equipment interacting data networks for their class assignment and bandwidth determines the probable nature of the indicators of the quality of international and long distance calls.

At the present stage of regulating the admission and routing of telephone traffic between the switching devices of the telecommunications network and equipment (gateways) packet data networks is important.This system of technical control is a procedure for admission and routing of international long-distance traffic and presents a sophisticated, high-tech software and hardware.

Communication on the IP network is perceived as less reliable in contrast to the circuit-switched public telephone network because it does not provide a network-based mechanism to ensure that data packets are not lost, and are delivered in sequential order. It is a best-effort network without fundamental Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. Therefore, VoIP implementations may face problems with latency, packet loss, and jitter.
Scientific supervisor –S.O.Kudrenko, associate professor

UDC 004.55 (043.2)


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  • Bashunov A.V. National Aviation University, Kyiv WEB-APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
  • Chaban D.A., Kazimi M.V.I.N.
  • Cherepovych N.D. National Aviation University, Kyiv FIREWALL USING IN COMPUTER NETWORK INFORMATION SECURITY
  • Holubovska N.V. , Drozd O.O. National Aviation University, Kyiv TECHNOLOGY OF ENCODING VISUAL INFORMATION THROUGH AUDIO SIGNALS
  • Huk V.M. NationalAviationUniversity, Kyiv NEURAL NETWORKS IN FORECASTING SYSTEMS
  • Dykhner S.M. National Aviation University,Kyiv PHP AS WEB-SITE DEVELOPING TOOL
  • Gram O.M. KirovogradFlightAcademy of NationalAviationUniversity, Kirovograd ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC LABORATORY WORKSHOPS
  • GrytsailoT.R. NationalAviation University,Kyiv DIGITAL FILTERS REALIZATION
  • Kutsa O.V. National aviation university,Kyiv Message transmission using ip telephony