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Sekcia: predškolská a elementárna pedagogika 11 організація ігрової діяльності дошкільників 12 як соціально-педагогічна проблема 12 Лариса Азарова, Наталія Франчук 12

Sekcia: predškolská a elementárna pedagogika 11 організація ігрової діяльності дошкільників 12 як соціально-педагогічна проблема 12 Лариса Азарова, Наталія Франчук 12




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Дата конвертації10.03.2017
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THE METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPING LISTENING COMPREHENSION COMPETENCE TO STUDENTS OF LINGUISTIC FIELDS



Olena Vovk
Annotation

The article seeks to understand the intricate nature of listening comprehension, which depends to a great extent on the specific features of spoken language. It proves that the effective listening process requires definite skills (recognition, identification, and selection), and different types of knowledge. The obtained results indicate that the ways of processing the incoming information fall into two broad categories: bottom-up and top-down. The former implies using knowledge about sounds and word meanings, which helps to assemble the understanding of what the learner hears. The latter derives from utilizing the listener’s prior knowledge and his own experiences to comprehend the received input.

The paper reveals that the combination of extensive and intensive types of listening proves fruitful in teaching oral comprehension. With the intention to demonstrate the practical validity of the suggested theoretical grounds, the relevant methodology of shaping listening comprehension competence is devised. The idea is maintained that processing the audio text encompasses three stages, each of which has to be provided with a set of relevant exercises which aim at simulating real-life communication.

Keywords: alien auditory competence, listening skills, methodology of developing auditory competence, system of exercises

Introduction
It is increasingly recognized that being one of the most crucial aspects of foreign language (FL) acquisition listening comprehension (LC) yet remains deficient in support; on the other hand, it is at the core of many debated issues in the areas of bilingual education and FL pedagogy. This can be accounted for by constant accumulating the data that prove the significance of LC. The evidence seems to be cogent that LC should be prioritized in the process of FL acquisition. Consequently, it will be plausible to premise that a considerable amount of research needs to be undertaken in this domain, since the generating interest in the subject under investigation still raises a sufficient number of controversies.

This paper explores the general features of alien auditory competence – a key axis around which this study is formed. It also synopsizes the basic strategies of LC, which may promote gradual development of this integrated ability.

Furthermore, the article demonstrates the succession of acquiring listening comprehension competence (LCC) by students of linguistic fields and provides a system of diversified exercises, devised specifically for this purpose.
1. The Key Aspect of Foreign Language Acquisition: Auditory Comprehension
This section examines the issue of auditory comprehension. It emphasizes the unique nature of LC and singles out the main characteristic features of this specific activity.

According to the current research on oral comprehension, adults spend 40-50% of communication time listening. It means that students are involved in this activity more often than in other forms of oral communication inside and outside the classroom [2, p. 3]. However, in most of the previous studies LC has frequently been viewed as a secondary skill necessary for FL acquisition. Anyway, due to the results of the investigations carried out recently, LC is now recognized as the most important aspect of the process of learning a FL.

Authoritative scholars J. Asher, J. Brown, H. Byrnes, R. Carver, B. Goss, S. Graham, R. Lund, J. Morley, J. Richards, R. Steinberg, L. Vandergrift et alt. have provided an integrated view and a diversified definition of auditory comprehension, identifying it as: a complex, active process of interpretation, in which listeners match what they hear with what they already know [17]; the ability of one individual perceiving another individual via sense, aural organs, assigning a meaning to the message and comprehending it [11, p. 54]; a highly complex problem-solving activity [3, p. 2].

To better penetrate into the nature of LC, it is essential to singularize the specific features of spoken language. This should be done in order to avoid the potential difficulties, which may arise during oral language comprehension. Firstly, speech is time-bound, dynamic and transient: the spontaneity, real-time nature of spoken language and its speed may hinder the process of understanding, since it is not always possible to listen to the text several times in order to better comprehend it. Moreover, the participants are likely to rely on such extralinguistic clues as a facial expression and a gesture. Secondly, perception and comprehension of aural speech requires its automatic processing: it means that the listening procedure must be almost entirely automatic, which enables speech understanding [17]. Finally, spoken language differs from written language by its stylistic coloring and the usage of particular elements, such as slang, dialects, contracted forms and the like [11, p. 59]. On balance, the above mentioned factors may complicate the process of LC.

Though it might seem self-evident, the ability of LC which is acquired more or less unconsciously in the native language (just by being around and interacting with people who speak it) encompasses a number of complex skills that are mastered without considerable attention to it. Thus, among high level skills of LC the following may be distinguished [9, pp. 49–51]: the ability to indicate which spoken sounds are meaningful parts of language and which are not; the phonological awareness (the ability to recognize the sounds of speech); the ability to detect key words, such as those identifying topics and ideas as well as sentence constituents: the subject, the predicate, the object, prepositions, and the like; the recognition of the reduced forms of words, typical word-order patterns, vocabulary, grammatical word classes, basic syntactic patterns and cohesive devices; the ability to recognize the stress and intonation patterns of English words.

Once LC skills are identified and LC is defined as an active process, it is relevant to consider the types of knowledge used in listening. Analyzing how the language comprehension system works, researchers indicate that in this process both linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge is involved. The former may be of different types, but among the most important ones are phonology, lexis, syntax, semantics and discourse structure. The latter is knowledge about the world and how it works [4, p. 18].

Complementary to the aforementioned there has been much debate about how knowledge can be applied to the incoming sound, and in the forefront of the polemic two most authoritative views can be traced: the bottom-up view and the top-down view, elaborated by L. Vandergrift [17, p. 170]. Specifically, bottom-up processing means that using the information about sounds and word meanings helps to assemble the understanding of what the learner hears. However, there are some serious problems with the suggested view, since processing different types of knowledge does not occur in a fixed sequence, but rather simultaneously, in any convenient order. In top-down processing it is assumed that the learner utilizes his prior knowledge and his own experiences to understand new information. In fact, these types of knowledge are capable of interacting and influencing each other. The point is that LC is the result of an interaction between a number of information sources, which include the acoustic input, different types of linguistic knowledge, details of the context, and general world knowledge. It is apparent, that it is most appropriate to consider the process of listening as interactions between top-down and bottom-up processing.

It is worthwhile at this stage to examine the kinds of listening which assist students to gain valuable language input. Turning to J. Harmer, one finds out that LC is the combination of extensive and intensive listening material. These both types are especially important since they provide the perfect opportunity to hear voices other than the teacher’s, enable students to acquire good speaking habits as a result of spoken English they absorb, and help to improve their own pronunciation [7, p. 228].

Commonly, extensive listening (where a teacher encourages students to choose for themselves what they are going to listen to and do so for pleasure and general language improvement) can have a dramatic effect on a student’s FL learning. The data indicate that the motivational power of such an activity increases drastically, and this fact should not be underestimated. The material for extensive listening can be found from a number of sources: audio versions of books, recordings of authentic materials (such as songs, short videos or films), and audio course books. In order to foster extensive listening, teachers can have students perform various tasks, for instance: to fill in the report forms listing the topic, to summarize the content of the recording, to write comments on cards or a student web site, in other words – to give students more reasons to listen [7, p. 229].

Another type of listening which is prevalent in the classroom – intensive listening – usually requires employing taped materials. The issue that needs to be addressed here is the number of times the listening material can be replayed. This remains a perennial problem and scholars view the question differently. So, if the students are to get the maximum benefit from a listening, then the text should be replayed two or more times [8, p. 305]. J. Field suggests that students profit more from a lot of listening rather than from a long pre-listening phase followed by only one or two exposures to the listening text [6, p. 58].

Nevertheless, multiple listening is beneficial when teaching only writing or speaking, but proves harmful when it comes to the development of LC.P.Ur rightfully points out that in real life discourse is rarely repeated, and suggests, therefore, that one of the tasks is to encourage students to get as much information as it is possible from a single hearing [16, p. 108]. However, a popular way of ensuring genuine communication is live listening where the teacher and/or the visitors talk to the students.

Live listening can take the following forms [7, p. 231]:

1) the teacher’s reading aloud (it allows to hear the spoken version of written text, and can be extremely enjoyable if the teacher does it with conviction and style);

2) story-telling (at any stage of the story students can be requested to predict what is coming next, or be asked to describe people in the story, or pass comment on it in some other way);

3) interviews (quite a motivating activity since students themselves think up the clarification questions and, consequently, are eager to listen for answers);

4) conversations (inviting colleagues to come to one’s class and hold a conversation with them – about English or any other subject; students then have a chance to watch the interaction as well as listen to it).

Besides audio materials students can also listen while watching film clips on video, DVD or online. Especially fruitful may appear news bulletins, since they provide learners with both social experience and authentic language. In the first place, while watching, students see ‘language in use’ with the whole lot of paralinguistic behavior. In the second place, students associate the process of watching something with watching a film at home. This brings relaxation, so English instructors should provide students with enough viewing and listening tasks so that they give their full attention to what they are hearing and seeing. Finally, it is worth remembering that students can watch a huge range of film clips on the Internet, finding something up to their age and taste [8, p. 308]. The indications are therefore that the combination of the described above types of listening is likely to turn out to be the most appropriate way to encourage students to listen.

In conclusion, it is evident that LC is predominant in the process of FL acquisition. Even though LC was not recognized as a sufficient facet of language learning in the past, now its relevance is taken into account by many scholars. It is true, that listening is vital in language learning since it provides input for the learner. And yet, despite a gradually increasing acceptance of it, LC remains the field, where much work remains to be done.

The comprehensible methodology which encompasses certain stages and a definite system of specialized exercises for developing LCC is discussed in the second section.
2. The Methodology of Developing Listening Comprehension Competence

2.1. The Procedure of Developing Listening Comprehension Competence
In order to develop LCC students are supposed to go through definite stages. O. Vovk provides a lucid division of exercises to be accomplished at different stages of work with an audio text. Commonly, this procedure encompasses three coherent stages [1, p. 203]: 1) pre-listening: listening with a purpose, brain storming, and preparing for further activities; 2) in-while listening: the actual process of listening; 3) post-listening: checking the understanding of the received information and preparing for speaking. Before describing the specificity of mental and communicative operations of each stage, it is pertinent to emphasize that the teacher should first assess the students’ listening skills and then provide them with appropriate assignments. To evaluate students’ skills, after listening to the text the suggested tests might be congruous:


  • Name some facts you remember from the text.

  • Summarize the main ideas of the information.

  • Formulate the thesis of the received message.

  • Brief the gist of the text.

  • You will hear the radio interview about high-achieving teenagers. For questions 1-10 complete the given sentences.

  • You will hear five different people talking about their jobs. Do the multiple choice test.

Now it would be logical to go on to specify in a cursory way the stages of developing LCC. The first – pre-listening – stage implies equipping the students with preliminary instructions as to the text perception, identifying the subject matter of the text, overcoming difficulties that teacher-trainees may encounter while receiving the incoming information (e.g. checking the understanding of sentences containing polysemantic words, idioms, and tricky phrases; explaining unknown grammatical structures used in the text; listening to and translating the isolated fragments of the text, etc.).

It is relevant to highlight at this phase the importance of the introductory pre-listening instructions aimed at providing students with motivational and organizational setting for a certain activity. C. Paulston maintains that motivation before listening is of primary significance [12, p. 67]. Among others, the instructions that motivate the students may include the complete or partial understanding of the received information, listening to and memorizing certain chunks of the text, inferring the meanings of the words and phrases from the context et alt. The most typical tasks for the pre-listening stage may encompass the following:



  • introducing new vocabulary with its further explanation and illustrative exemplification;

  • practicing unknown or complicated grammatical structures used in the text;

  • drilling phonetically complicated phrases from the audio text;

  • the thematic and structural grouping of the lexical stuff contained in the text (root-words, derivatives, compounds, etc.);

  • putting different types of questions to the most intricate sentences, hard in linguistic respect;

  • entitling the received text;

  • elucidating the content of the text by the title, key words or pictures

At this stage the learners may also use KWL charts (K stands for know, W – want to know, and L – learn). Students have to fill in these charts before listening marking the facts they already know about the topic under discussion, their expectations after listening, and the acquired information [14]. Before listening to the text students should be informed as to the ways their answers will be checked and assessed. These ways may incorporate: multiple choice tests, cloze-tests (reproducing or contributing the information); making up the plan of the text, providing key words to the text, etc.. In either case, the variety of pre-listening assignments and tasks to monitor the understanding of the received message is rather ample. Consequently, their choice depends to a great extent on the purpose of listening.

As demonstrated by the recent study, a significant effect on how successfully cognizing subjects listen is reached due to the background knowledge they are given. Overwhelmingly, whether students are ‘high- or low-proficiency’ listeners, their academic performance is more effective in case they get some topic which helps them in making the sense of listening. Complementary to this, some scholars believe that activating students’ schemata proves even better than either letting them preview questions or teaching them some key vocabulary before they listen [5, p. 383].

The next – in-while listening – stage is the actual process of listening to the alien audio message. Here either the whole text or separate blocks of it are listened to. The number of deliveries may vary, but in order to maintain students’ interest in the message, diversified exercises should be implemented. The assignments to them may comprise:


  • listening to the text and completing the sentences;

  • listening to the text and singling out without any alterations the word combinations, which were used in it;

  • listening to the audio and providing equivalents for some words or phrases;

  • entitling the heard parts of the text;

  • reconstructing the text with the help of key words or phrases;

  • paraphrasing the received information;

  • following the given instructions (e.g. to add the details; to pinpoint the direction on the map; to complete the chart or scheme; to specify the key points in the text);

  • finding the discrepancy between the written and the audio texts;

  • identifying the peculiar features of characters, conditions, speaker’s attitudes etc.;

  • completing/reproducing/amplifying the statements;

  • filling in the gaps.

In accordance with K. McCaughey, special emphasis should be placed on active listening, which definitely will increase the effectiveness of LC. This type of listening may encompass: correlating ideas, events, people, and places; paying attention to the equivocal and ambiguous words, and vague ideas; making anticipations and confirming or dismissing them; listening “between the lines”, making conclusions concerning the implied information; forming personal judgments as to the received message [10, p. 10]. Similarly, the idea is postulated that students’ note-taking skills might be developed during the listening process. Naturally, note-taking strategies are not universal since they strongly depend on the individual psycho-physiologic features of a student. Still, three key rules of note-taking can be put forward: a) to select the core information; b) to make short notes using the common acronyms, abbreviations and symbols; c) to define the relations between the events, their main actors and objects [1, p. 195; 15].

The final – post-listening – stage is aimed at examining the understanding of the text. The exercises to check the comprehension of the received information may incorporate three groups of assignments according to the level of their specification. These assignments are oriented at: 1) evaluating the depth of comprehension of the audio message; 2) the creative processing of the text; 3) employing the received information in various kinds of communicative activities.

In its turn, the exercises designed for monitoring students’ understanding of the audio text may comprise such tasks as:


  • to accomplish true/false assignments;

  • to complete a multiple-choice test;

  • to do an alternative test (Yes/No);

  • to answer the questions;

  • to divide the text into the semantic parts;

  • to reproduce the heard text in brief;

  • to provide one’s own opinion as for the problem raised in the text;

  • to continue, expand or amplify the text.

After the work with the audio text it is advisable to switch to other activities like speaking, reading, and writing. Equally essential is that the monitoring of text comprehension should enclasp every student of the group. It should start from simple forms and gradually proceed to more complicated ones which require personal judgments, for example: Characterize…; Explain why…; Account for…; Suggest your rationale as far as…; Speak PRO and CONTRA .

On balance, the process of developing LCC incorporates three main stages: instruction, audio material presentation, and comprehension control. The thoroughness of preparation for the listening stipulates the increase of effectiveness of perceiving the message. So, it is relevant to take a closer look at the exercises, which are to be implemented at each of the stages mentioned above.


2.2. The System of Exercises for Developing Listening Comprehension Competence
According to J. Wilson, no language skill should be taught in isolation. That is why LC activities have to be related to the material being studied as oral practice or reading; it can also give an impetus for writing activities [19, p. 148]. Hence, the devised system of LC exercises is to provide: the correspondence between psychological and linguistic difficulties of LC; the possibility to combine listening with other kinds of activities (specifically, with speaking); managing and monitoring the development of students’ listening skills; the successful fulfillment of the practical goal. Anyway, before the teacher can elaborate a sequence of activities which will train students in LC, he must penetrate into the nature of the developed skill. Listening to an alien message may be viewed as involving two levels of the activity, both of which must be taught [13, p. 142–143]. They require some specification. The first – recognitionlevel, involves identifying words and phrases in their structural interrelationships; time sequences; logical and modifying terms; and redundant phrases. Subsequently, it is only after the recognition of these general features has become automatic that students can be expected to reproduce or respond to what they have heard in a long sequence. At the second – selection – level, the listener is drawing out from the communication the elements which seem to express the purposes of the speaker or those which suit his own purposes. To be able to listen eventually with ease to a FL in natural situations, the student needs thorough training at the recognition level and much practice in selecting from a stream of sounds specific details of the message.

O. Vovk [1, p. 208–214] suggests the system of LC oriented exercises that can be used at both of the above mentioned levels. In this system two subsystems can be singled out. The first subsystem encompasses preparatory exercises for receiving and identifying sound and word combinations, intonation patterns of phrases, grammatical forms, etc. These exercises are triple targeted, since they are meant to shape the phonetic, the lexical, and the grammatical LC skills. The preparatory subsystem encompasses non-communicative and semi-communicative exercises. Among them the following are to be distinguished:



1. Exercises aimed at differentiating the sound or word forms. Commonly, such tasks train students in listening to the text carefully. Of great use here are the words which have a similar pronunciation, e.g.: weekweak; meetmeat; hearhere; hairhare; preypray; roadrode; plainplane; pailpale; herdheard; noknow; writeright; or where the pronunciation differs only in one sound e.g.: writeride; сodecoat; nowno; wroteroad; leatherlather; harehear; coachcouch; mustmast; ridread; Timteam; glassgrass; birdbeard. The tasks to the exercises may be as follows: Listen to the pairs of words. When you hear the slightest difference in their pronunciation, raise up your hand.

2. Exercises focused on differentiating the meaning of a phrase/sentence according to the logical stress. The teacher reads aloud the same phrase several times, each time with a different logical stress; the students have to continue the phrase, adding a relevant element. Exercises of this kind train students to foresee the speech flow with the employment of prosodic means, e.g.:

  • Teacher: He didn’t lose his new `hat. Students: He lost his gloves.

  • Teacher: He didn’t lose his `new hat. Students: He lost his old hat.

  • Teacher: He didn’t `lose his new hat. Students: He gave it to his father.

  • Teacher: He didn’t lose `his new hat. Students: He lost his father’s new hat.

3. Exercises for differentiating the communicative types of sentences: 1) Listen to the sentences and raise up your hand when you hear an interrogative / imperative / negative sentence. 2) Listen to the sentences and say how many interrogative, imperative and negative sentences you’ve heard.

4. Exercises for differentiating the paronyms. In such exercises paronymous pairs of words are to be selected, e.g.: economical economic; historical historic; sensitivesensible; enviousenviable; credible credulous; judicialjudicious; genial – genius. The tasks can be of such kind: 1) Listen to the sentences and fill in the gaps in them with the appropriate words in the box. 2) Listen to the words and differentiate between homonyms and paronyms.

5. Exercises for defining the meanings of the derived and complex words. The tasks to these exercises may incorporate the following: Guess the positive or negative differences in meanings of the words by their morphological elements. Translate the given words. Fill in the gaps in the sentences using the most appropriate words:

  1. understand – misunderstandunderstandable; mistake – mistaken – unmistaken; establish – establishment; satisfaction – satisfactory – unsatisfactory; comprehend – comprehension – comprehensible – incomprehensible – incomprehensibility; sympathy – sympathetic – sympathetically – unsympathetic;

  2. Disneyland; blacklist; daydream; babysitter; honeymoon; cowboy; spaceship; handicraft; tradesman; mother-of-pearl; playmate; pickpocket; mind-reader; spoon-feed; second-guess.

6. Exercises for guessing or elucidating the meanings of the unfamiliar lexical units. The possible tasks to be used here are as follows:

  • listen to the homonyms in the sentences and define their meaning;

  • listen to the synonyms in the sentences and define their meaning;

  • listen to the sentences with polysemantic words and define the shades of their meanings;

  • listen to the sentences and define those which differ only in one word in the same position.

7. Exercises for understanding the phrases with the unknown polysemantic lexical units: Listen to the sentences and translate them paying attention to the difference in the meanings of the word “break:

  • Break in the weather surprised everyone.

  • We didn’t know we were breaking the law.

  • I hate to break my promise.

  • Mary broke into laughter.

  • The FBI broke his alibi.

  • She was once best friend to Mary, but broke with her last year.

  • This winter broke the record for snowfall.

8. Exercises for understanding the phrases with the multifunctional grammatical structures: Listen to the sentences and differentiate in which cases the verbs “would” and “have” are notional, modal or auxiliary.

  • The boy promised he would come on time (Future-in-the-Past).

  • I would not come if I were you (Mood auxiliary).

  • Peter asked his friend about his plans for the future but he wouldn’t answer (Modal verb).

  • "You have to have an idea of what you are going to do, but it should be a vague idea" (Pablo Picasso).

  • He had his watch repaired.

  • Usually we have tea at 5 p.m.

9. Exercises for identifying the communicative nucleus of a sentence:

Listen to the sentences and identify the subject and the predicate in them:

  • We expected Peter to come over for dinner tonight.

  • Everybody enjoyed Baryshnikov’s dancing.

  • Have you ever been to the USA?

  • But I am sure your father will believe that you were at school.

  • We are having a party tomorrow night.

  • She was giddy with a mixture of excitement and fear.

  • Then we’ll call you up for the recitation.

  • Why didn’t I escape when I could?

10. Exercises for identifying the parts of a sentence: Listen to the sentences and identify the border between the principal and subordinate clauses:

  • After dripping mustard all over his chest, Charles who was wearing a red shirt wished that he had instead chosen ketchup for his hotdog.

  • Mr. Brown looked as if he had not slept for many nights.

  • The company did pay Mark’s travel expenses, although he turned down the job.

  • Because her teeth were chattering in fear Lynda clenched her jaw muscle while waiting for her turn to audition.

11. Exercises for denoting the meanings of the elements in a syntagma: to ……. the piano (play); to ……… some guests (expect); to …… for a bus (wait); to …… the morning reading a newspaper (spend); to ……… at one’s watch (glance); to ……… into the real world (go out); to ………. one’s money on trifles (waste).

12. Exercises for developing the speech mechanisms of LC. These may comprise several groups:

  1. To elaborate on auditory hearing:

  • listen to the sentences pronounced fluently and define whether they correspond to those written on the cards;

  • listen to the sentences and mark those which do not correspond to the contents of the text;

  • listen to the sentences, pronounced fluently; put them down into your notebooks; then listen to the same sentences pronounced slowly and check up whether you’ve written them correctly;

  • listen to several coherent sentences: in the list of words tick off those which you will hear in the word combinations of these sentences;

  • listen to the group of sentences and mark personal names you will hear;

  • listen to the sentences and imitate the actions mentioned in them.

  1. To exercise the aural memory and attention:

  • listen to the dates and telephone numbers: reproduce them from memory;

  • listen to the words and word combinations, and reproduce them in the original order;

  • listen to the broken parts of a sentence, connect them to make a coherent whole, and reproduce the sentence;

  • listen to two phrases and identify what is missing/new in the second phrase;

  • listen to the announcement and fill in the gaps in the script of it;

  • listen to a number of words and name those, which are related to the given topic;

  • compare the sentences written on the card with those pronounced by the speaker, and identify lexical and grammatical differences in them.

  1. To develop the ability of probabilistic anticipation:

  • listen to the beginnings of the words and finish them;

  • match the attributes with the given nouns;

  • make up possible word combinations using given nouns and adjectives, or verbs and adverbs;

  • listen to the words from the text you are going to listen to and try to guess its title/theme;

  • listen to the beginnings of the word combinations and finish them;

  • listen to the riddle and try to guess it;

  • listen to the description of a person and define his/her occupation;

  • listen to the title and guess what the text is about;

  • listen to the beginning of the story and guess what it is about;

  • listen to the phrases and define in what situations they might be used.

  1. To cultivate the ability to perform the information analysis:

  • listen to the sentence and identify the key words in it;

  • listen to the phrases and define how they are related to each other;

  • listen to the passage and identify the key sentence in it;

  • listen to the passage and define whether it was the beginning or the end of the text.

It should be emphasized that the information analysis plays a significant role in developing LCC, since students are able to anticipate speaker’s line of thought. Thus, it is expedient to acquaint them with the most frequently used phrases in a targeted FL. Also essential is the ability to differentiate between the indirect and literal meanings of the message, hence, exercises of such kind should be included in the devised system as well.

The second subsystem encompasses solely communicative exercises which [1, p. 213–214]:

1) provide listening practice based on the integrated overcoming of auditory difficulties;

2) imply the comprehension of the input in conditions, similar to those of natural communication;

3) are aimed at perfecting sense perception and achieving a definite level of understanding of the received message. The second subsystem of exercises ensures developing listening skills. It embodies semi-communicative and communicative receptive exercises. Semi-communicative exercises suggest listening to the messages like directions, weather forecast, advertisements, questions, airport information, commercials, sport news fragments, current news, etc. on the super-phrasal level, whereas communicative exercises function on the text level.

In its turn, communicative exercises facilitate students’ abilities to foresee the content of the message, specify the core information, find the secondary details, establish cause-consequence relations, focus on characters, their actions and specific features, follow the logical sequence of the events, and stick to it when reproducing the text. Another essential point here is the correlation of auditory comprehension with speaking (as they are both the types of aural speech), and LC with reading (for they are two types of receptive activity).

Among the group of communicative exercises the following may be differentiated:



1. Exercises for identifying the logical sequence of the events in the text:

  • listen to the text and define the actions of the main character in the logical fashion;

  • listen to the story and report it in 4-5 sentences;

  • listen to the story and make an outline of it;

  • listen to the story and arrange the points of the given outline in the logical sequence.

2. Exercises for anticipating the content of the text and developing students’ imagination:

  • listen to the beginning of the story and think up your continuation of it;

  • listen to the middle of the story and guess its beginning and continuation, then listen again and check where your guessing was right;

  • listen to the end of the story and come up with the beginning of it.

3. Exercises for elucidating the main idea of the text or precise understanding of the text:

  • listen to the text and define the basic notional parts in it;

  • listen to the story and entitle it;

  • listen to the story and say whether the statements are true or false;

  • listen to the story and answer the questions to it;

  • listen to two similar stories and say what is different in them.


Conclusion
This paper has focused on teaching LC to students of linguistic fields. It has emphasized that oral comprehension is a paramount aspect of FL acquisition. The obtained evidence seems to indicate that learners benefit greatly from listening that is why a considerable amount of time should be devoted to developing their aural skills.

The suggested system of exercises may be effectively implemented in the process of developing LCC. The subsystems incorporated into the system provide acquiring various listening skills. Notwithstanding, the current study is far from being conclusive. It provides implications for further research of the issue under discussion to validate the efficiency of the devised methodology. Moreover, practicing the received material is incomplete without employing the cognitive aspect. Consequently, its role in the process of developing LCC might also be explored and clarified.



References


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  2. Bingol, M. Listening Comprehension Difficulties Encountered by Students in Second Language Learning Class / M. Bingol, B. Celik // Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World. – 2014. – Vol. 4. – P. 3–9.

  3. Brown, S. Teaching Listening / S. Brown. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2006. – 34 p.

  4. Buck, G. Assessing Listening / G. Buck. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. – Vol. 45. – 2001. – P. 12 – 23.

  5. Ching-Shyang Chang, A. The Effects of Listening Support on the Listening Performance of EFL Learners / A. Chang-Shyang Chang, J. Read // TESOL Quarterly. – 2006. – Vol. 40 (Issue 2). – P. 375–397.

  6. Field, J. Listening in the Language Classroom / J. Field – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2009. – 366 p.

  7. Harmer, J. Listening / J. Harmer // The Practice of English Language Teaching. – London : Longman, 2001. – P. 228 – 233.

  8. Harmer, J. Listening. Extensive and Intensive Listening / J. Harmer // The Practice of English Language Teaching. – 4th ed. – London : Longman, 2007. – P. 303 – 322.

  9. Lems, K. Listening Comprehension and Oral Language Development / K. Lems, L. Miller, T. Soro // Teaching Reading to English Language Learners. – New York : The Guilford Press, 2010. – P. 45–63.

  10. McCaughey, K. Practical Tips for Increasing Listening Practice Time / K. McCaughey // English-Teaching Forum. – 2015. – Vol. 53. – P. 2–12.

  11. Osada, N. Listening Comprehension Research: A Brief Review of the Past Thirty Years / N. Osada // Dialogue. – 2004. – Vol. 3. – P. 53–66.

  12. Paulston, C. Teaching English as a Second Language: Techniques and Procedures / C. Paulston, M. Bruder. – New York : Norton Company, 2004. − 113 p.

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  14. Rogers, A. Procedures for Teaching Listening Skills [Electronic Resource] / A. Rogers // Exploration on Designing College English Listening Class. – 2009. – [Electronic Resource]. – Available from: http://www.ehow.com/ info_8738824_procedures-teaching-listening-skills.html

  15. Swift, S. Why Don’t They Understand [Electronic Resource] / S. Swift // Teaching Listening Skills. – 2006. – [Electronic Resource]. – Available from: http://eltnotebook.blogpost.com/2006/12/why-don’t-the-understand.

  16. Ur, P. A Course in Language Teaching / P. Ur // Intellectual Archive. – Toronto : Shiny World Cup, 2000. – Vol. 7. – P. 108–117.

  17. Vandergift, L. Facilitating Second Language Listening Comprehension: Acquiring Successful Strategies / L. Vandergift // ELT Journal. – 1999. – Vol. 53/3. – P. 168–171.

  18. Vandergift, L. Listening: Theory and Practice in Modern Foreign Language Competence / L. Vandergift // Centre for Language, Linguistics and Area Studies. – 2002. – [Electronic Resource] – Available from : https://www.llas.ac.uk/resources/gpg/67

  19. Wilson, J. How to Teach Listening / J. Wilson. – New York : Basic Books, 2008. – 333 p.


Information about author:

Vovk Olena – Sc.D., Associate Professor, Professor of English Philology Department, Educational and Research Institute of Foreign Languages, Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Cherkasy, Ukraine. E-mail: helenvaleriy@mail.ru


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