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Sekcia: predškolská a elementárna pedagogika 11 організація ігрової діяльності дошкільників 12 як соціально-педагогічна проблема 12 Лариса Азарова, Наталія Франчук 12

Sekcia: predškolská a elementárna pedagogika 11 організація ігрової діяльності дошкільників 12 як соціально-педагогічна проблема 12 Лариса Азарова, Наталія Франчук 12




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KEY ISSUES IN THE ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION IN UKRAINE

AND WAYS OF THEIR SOLUTION



Olena Kryvda
Annotation

The article discloses the relevant problems related to modernization of the Ukrainian education economy. The need for formation and development of a unified information and network management, interaction and integration environment is determined. This will allow solving many problems associated with the need for modernization of the higher education sphere and create the system of realization of principles of openness, transparency and publicity of educational institutions activities.


Keywords: modernization, innovations, education, problems, cluster, network interaction.
Introduction
Admittedly, the system of government in Ukraine is not working satisfactorily. The problem of administrative barriers directly related to even more serious "disease" of the Ukrainian authorities – corruption. According to Transparency International movement to combat corruption, the Corruption Perceptions Index 2015, Ukraine received 27 points and took 130th place, sharing it with Nepal, Nicaragua, Iran and Cameroon. Due to the indecision in the persecution of crimes of corruption and chaotic measures to prevent corruption in Ukraine remains the last third of the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI).
1. Corruption in education: identification and methods of struggle
Corruption has spread over all sectors of activity and unfortunately hasn’t passed over education. Openness of Ukrainian education for public institutionsand compliance with standards of transparency are necessary to fight corruption in education. Various ethical codes regulating the educational spherehave been successfully operating in the developed Western countries, but in our environment work with such documents is not possible, since they do not correspond to the Ukrainian legislation at all. When developing documents establishing the transparency and openness of the university at the highest level, it is important that this was an operational tool document, rather than a "piece of paper with declared but infringed values".

There is a direct correlation between transparency of procedures, as well as transparency of information and quality of expertsleaving the walls of university. The modern model of education promotes a crisis of confidence and fosters corrupt behavior among students in higher education, since it forms a misconception about ethics.Therefore transparency of higher education institutions is so necessary for our country – that at the exit not to receive a human capital of the worst quality, than on an entrance. Consequently, the closure of the university in any of the types of activities entails deterioration of human capital and opportunities for good education. Therefore, closeness of higher education institution in any of types of its activities involves deterioration in a human capital and opportunities for receipt of full education. Thus, if Ukraine wants to become the advanced country with a competitive human capital – higher education institutions transparent and accountable to society are necessary. Thus, the Ukrainian universities need that integrity in the West is called: absence of corruption in case of effective management of educational, scientific and administrative activities of university.

Firstly, it is necessary to identify and classify the risks of corruption activity of universities, and secondly, to build a model of the "ideal" university with the set of parameters, on which as reference other universities willalign, and, thirdly, to carry out monitoring of domestic and foreign universities regarding compliance in a varying degree to these reference qualities of openness and transparency.
2. Specific ways out of the situation for universities in Ukraine
In addition to assessing the transparency of procedures and processes in higher education is also necessary to assess their quality. To do this, an information and communication system called "Campus" was built in NTU "Sikorsky KPI". It ensures the protection of the interests of students, teachers and others on the basis of ensuring publicity, openness and transparency. In addition, this system allows you to create the conditions for implementation of public control, forming this necessary infrastructure. One of the major problems of modernization of educational services is to organize networking between all participants of the market of educational services for successful implementation of educational programs. This system provides the ability to electronically evaluate students, stand certification, chat online, download training materials, which are available to interested students, etc. In turn, students also have opportunity to evaluate the teaching staff, while respecting anonymity, by five main criteria. Introduction of such system would significantly reduce corruption component, if it worked smoothly, accurately and in a timely manner. But the process of adjustment and implementation of such innovation always meets on its way confrontation and even rejection. That's why it's so long. But this is not enough.

Organizations and companies learn from each other's positive experience in an effort to improve its own activities. Thus, an integrated information system provides the opportunity to create a more perfect management system of educational services, carrying out networking control subjects. In order to significantly reduce the level of corruption in the system of educational services, it is necessary to create a common information and communication space of higher education. Creating appropriate integrated information and communication system would ensure openness and transparency of the activities of higher education institutions; the possibility of public participation in shaping the educational environment, the management, the implementation of public control, etc.; virtual mobility for students and teachers; conditions to protect the interests of students, and more. Thus, the creation of such an information system will provide a platform for the introduction of a variety of effective counteraction mechanisms in higher education. In system of higher education it is necessary to create an independent court of appeal. One of the most effective anti-corruption measures is ensuring democratic principles of openness, publicity and transparency. Horizontal integration problem most often associated with the physical association of universities. This consolidation does not provide synergistic effect itself and can do great harm to the development of the domestic sphere of education. International experience has shown that establishing an effective control system is connected with the network form of integration. It can be an alternative to the creation of mega-universities, unable to respond quickly to rapidly changing environmental conditions. In modern conditions the most urgent and important is the integration of higher education institutions in the form of associations through networking. Thus, the solution to the problem of quality assurance in the field of educational services is seen at a high technical and technological level – horizontal integration of universities in the resource level through networking. The current scope of educational services is characterized by: cumbersome, multi-tier, bureaucracy, violation handling, conservatism, lack of resourcing, poor quality of general and vocational education, social tensions, etc.



To be effective, the modernization of education in order to ensure competitiveness in the global market are very relevant decision of the following tasks: a deep and meaningful reform of educational services; the use of systemic method of education; the use of a narrow specialization and elite education; change of attitude towards the student, making it an equal partner; horizontal integration of universities; the use of modern communications and management, etc. The problem of integration of science and higher education is a priority for the process of innovation development of Ukraine. In turn, the modernization of higher education system is focused on the fact that science has become one of the main components of the university. Also changing the requirements for the scientific product, which should not only meet the demands of today's market, but also be able to take their place in the innovation process. The solution of the above problems in modern conditions is seen in the formation of the educational cluster-based network management organizational structure that will achieve multiplier effect of the economic impact, which will provide a quantum leap in innovative development of the country.
Conclusion
In order to significantly improve the efficiency of the domestic sphere of educational services, it is necessary in the short term to create the country a unified information network management environment, interaction and integration. That is what will allow solving many problems arising from the need to modernize the higher education sector, allowing a system implementing the principles of openness, transparency and publicity of the activities of educational institutions. Thus, the educational cluster allows each university to switch to an innovative path of development and immediately start using modern information technology. Interaction in this format already proved its effectiveness, allowing the integration of science, education and business to implement related projects and achieve common goals.
References


    1. Lenchuk E.B., Vlaskin G.A.The cluster approach in the innovative development strategy of foreign countries / Е.Lenchuk, G. Vlaskin. – Problems of Forecasting, 20105. – Р. 38-51.

    2. Abdrakhmanovа G.I. The use of information and communication technologies in education / G. Abdrakhmanov, G. Kovalevа [Statistical overview]. – Questions Education, 2010. – №3, р. 152-195.

    3. Hadzhalovа J.M. Human capital is the modern family / J .Hadzhalovа. – Creative Economy, 2014. – №11, р. 62-72.

    4. Krasikov T.Y. Formation and development of the educational cluster as part of the mechanism of integration of university research in the national system of innovation /Krasikov T. – Economics, management, finance: Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference (Perm, June 2011). – Perm: Mercury, 2011. – P. 61-64.

    5. Ranking of countries in terms of corruption perception. [Electronic resource] – Access mode: http://gtmarket.ru/ratings/corruption-perceptions-index/info


Information about author:

Olena Kryvda – Ph.D., Associate Professor, National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kyiv, Ukraine. E-mail: o.kryvda@kpi.ua



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