The aimof the article – to identify and disclose the nature and content of the communicative and game education in learning foreign language in elementary school and opportunities for communicative training game in practice.
Communicative and game education is a guiding principle in learning foreign language in primary school. According to A. V. Zaporozhets, the object of learning foreign language is speech activity of pupils [1, p. 93]. Speech activity of foreign language is for primary school children with its inherent visual-figurative thinking abstract phenomenon that they do not understand without the support of substantive action. N. D. Halskova writes that the younger the child is, the greater the learning process should be based on its practical actions, the more typical types of children's activities will be included in a general outline of the lesson, the more types of perception will be connected and teaching will be more effective [2, p. 138].
A. M. Leontiev pointed on importance of genetic interdependence of communication and activity on psychological unjustified speaking for speaking. The word in speech development assimilated as a result of activity and commentsthis activity, when it has emotional significance for the child, and because communication inherently should serve other activities in learning a foreign language to «connect» all possible activities and develop speech in connection with them [3, p. 55].
Based on analysis of the nature of mastering the mother tongue children found out which activities are the best at teaching foreign language in elementary school. The theory of language acquisition is based on the fundamental principle of L. S. Vygotskyi that the process of language development associated with the development of the objective activity, social behaviour and made only during the child's communication with the surrounding people [4, p. 52]. L. S. Vygotskyi believed that the main paths of the development, including speech is imitation and generalization should be present initially in the form of practical actions that subsequently become the property of higher mental functions [5, p. 129]. The word stands out from the situation under the influence of communication and implementation of practical action. Children learn not only the names of objects and actions in the communication and purposeful activity, but the relation between them [6, p. 46]. Thus, language is based on real actions with objects that create a foundation for future relations «subject, predicates, the object», that underlie in the simplest «nuclear» structures of language [7, p. 145–149].
M. I. Lisina established during decades of experimental research that needs sharpening mastery word for communication, which is provided mainly through a combination of role play and learning of children promotes language development of children [7, p. 106].
The foregoing is a psycho-linguistic rationale for supporting foreign language communication familiar to primary school children and about gaming activities, which, in fact, it creates a meaningful basis. This intertwining of subject/game and communicative activity provides for the principle of communicative game learning a foreign language at primary school.
Synthesis of play and speech / communication activities can provide reasoned successful learning foreign languages in elementary school. In addition, communicative and game activities as the so-called teaching and playing activity at lessons of a foreign language is a necessary condition for achieving organic connection between preschool and school stages of learning. I. I. Passov understands educational and entertaining activities an activity in which the components of educational activity (motives, objectives, methods of operation and product) introduced in the game, creating a single entity [8, p. 116]. A number of researchers experimentally demonstrated the need for intermediate educational and entertaining activities for the successful formation of educational activity of children 6-8 years [9; 10; 11].
Thus, analysis of the achievements of the age of pedagogy and psychology, psycholinguistics and physiology in the field of natural language acquisition children 9-10 years allowed defining the guiding principle of natural artificialness and communicative-game basis for the organization of foreign language teaching in primary schools. Implementation of foreign language teaching elementary school children based on communicative and game activity will enable them to learn a foreign language easily, naturally, with pleasure. On the basis of artificial naturalness of internal processes of language acquisition will be enhanced by didactically reasoned and methodically justified (especially taking into account the characteristics of primary school children and the way of mastering their language) external management, which will provide eventually high efficiency communicative game learning a foreign language in the elementary school.
Last decade method of learning a foreign language develops under the sign of communicative based learning. Psychologists, educators, facilitators emphasize that primary school children were able to not just speak foreign languages learned words and phrases on a particular subject, but were unable to say what they want to say. Famous practitioners and theorists also believe that it is necessary to create in the classroom role-playing situations that stimulate communication, submit a cognitive material that attracts the most attention, affecting the emotional and intellectual sphere.
As you know, any methodical system implemented through a system of principles that define its specificity and on which it bases its strategy. The principle of communicative and game activity is the basis of intensive teaching method, which, in turn, is characterized by the active use of psychological and socio-psychological possibilities of the individual and the collective. This principle describes the means, methods and conditions of a single educational process, in which:
– primary school children actively communicate with each other, expanding their knowledge, improving skills;
– communication between the participants creates optimal interaction and forms relationships characteristic of the team, which is a condition and means to enhance the study of foreign language;
– condition for success is the success of each other.
The principle of communicative and game activity involves a combination of social and educational function of communication in the same process as close activities – learning and communication. These active subjects of communication should not be content with just the perception of the message, and the reaction to it, they should try to express their attitude to it, show their personal characteristics. The abidance to this principle should lead to formation of communicative competence of children [12, p. 35]. Teaching material should include means of entering into contact, exit from it, communicative units of the evaluation character so that is all that allows you to express your personality in an organized and controlled by the teacher in foreign communication.
The principle of communicative and game activity of the educational material and training process aims to create an important place of role and role behaviour in management training and cognitive activity of elementary school children. The role organization of educational process involves the use of role-playing game, which from the perspective of the teacher acts as a form of educational process, but from the children – as a gaming activity. The role playing game acts as the way of organization and conduct of the whole educational process. It is as if the core of the learning process and promotes rational organization and concentration of educational material on the basis of personal qualities primary school children and collective way of improving language training [13, p. 38–39].
The communicative and game education in learning of foreign language in primary schools is a trend in the development of methods of teaching foreign language, the study of all aspects of learning basic foreign language communication as the main goal of foreign language teaching in primary schools has prospective.
The communicative and game education develops all language skills – from oral and written speech to reading and listening. Grammar is assimilated in the language of communication: pupil first learns the words, expressions and only then begins to understand what they represent in the grammatical sense. The aim – to teach elementary school children speak a foreign language not only free, but also properly.
The rules and meaning of new words are explained by teacher for primary school children with help of familiar vocabulary, grammar and expressions with gestures and facial expressions, pictures and other visual aids. It can be used as a computer with CD, Internet, TV programs, newspapers, magazines, etc. All this contributes to awakening children's interest in the culture and traditions of the country of the studied language.
The teacher creates a situation in the foreign language lessons, in which children communicate in pairs with each other in groups. This makes the lesson more diverse. The primary school children find the language independent working in a group. They can help each other and successfully adjusted statements of interlocutors.
The teacher is the organizer of the functions of communication in the classroom, he asks leading questions, and draws attention to the original ideas of younger members.
Thus, children who study the topic «Introduction», in fact begin to actively meet and discuss what interests them.
The communicative and game education asks exercise «with open ending»: elementary school children do not know in what poured out their activities in the classroom, everything will depend on the reactions and responses. The situations are used every day new. They support the pupils' interest, because everyone wants to communicate in the game on topics of interest to children. The communicative and game education is the assimilation of the learning process of the communication process, more precisely, it is based on the fact that learning is a model of the communication process, albeit somewhat simplified, but with the basic parameters adequate, similar to real communication process [8, p. 181].
The communicative and game method of teaching foreign language suggests that the subject of study in this case is the language activities in a foreign language. This process clearly traces the allocation language skills of speaking, and suggests exercises for their consistent formation. This gives reason to believe that communicative and game education represents the activity-type of learning foreign language among elementary school children.
It can be concluded summarizing the results of the study that modern communicative and game education is a harmonious combination of many methods of teaching foreign languages. The computer programs, the Internet, TV programs, newspapers, magazines gain wide use in communication training, which helps to awaken children’s' interest in history, culture and traditions of the countries studied language. The communicative games promote the transfer of experience, obtaining new knowledge, develop skills in human memory and thinking. The communicative and game education provides a variety of language topics, due to the situation of communication.
1.A. V. Zaporozhets. Development of logical thinking in children in pre-school will be rewarded / A. V. Zaporozhets – M., 1995. – P. 91–101. 2. Galskova N. D. Theory and practice of teaching foreign languages / N. D. Galskova, Z. P. Nikitenko. Elementary school : – M. : Iris Press, 2004. – 240 p. 3. Leontiev A. A. Language, speech, speech activity / A. A. Leontiev. – M. : KomKniga, 2005. – 216 p. 4. Vygotskyi L. S. The game and its role in the psychological development of the child / L. S. Vygotskyi // Questions of psychology. – 1996. – № 6. – Р. 34–41. 5. Vygotskyi L. S. Thought and Speech / L. S. Vygotskyi // Picture. Psychol. – M., 1983. – 243 p. 6. Shahnarovich A. M. Psycho-linguistic analysis of the semantics / A. M. Shahnarovich, N. M. Yureva. – Moscow : Nauka, 1990. – 168 p. 7. Lisina M. I. Communication, personality and psyche of the child / M. I. Lisina // Scientific journal ed. Ruza AG – Moscow : Publishing House of the Institute of psychol., 1997. – 384 p. 8. Passov I. I. Fundamentals of communicative methods of teaching foreign language communication / I. I. Passov – Moscow : Rus. Jaz, 1989. – 276 p. 9. Lüscher M. A. Signals personality. Role playing and their motives / M. A. Lüscher. – Voronezh: Real, 1995. – 180 p. 10. Nikolaeva S. Y. Method for teaching foreign languages in secondary schools. / S. Y. Nikolayeva – K. : Lenvit, 1999. – 320 p. 11. Podlasyi I. P. Pedagogy Primary School / I. P. Podlasyi // Proc. Collec. for students. ped. colleges. – M. : VLADOS, 2001. – 400 p. 12. Druchkiv N. Y. Concepts communicative playing techniques of early foreign language teaching in the new school complex «deutsch im Spiel» for the first class of secondary school // N. Y. Druchkiv, E. A. Parishkova. Foreign languages. – 1998. – № 3. – P. 33–35. 13. Kolesnikova O. A. Role playing in learning foreign languages / O. A. Kolesnikova // Foreign languages at school. – 1989. – № 4. – P. 38–42.
UDC 81’372.161: 811.111 Masalovych I., the 4th year student of History and Philology Faculty; research advisor – Budz I. F., a lecturer of Romano-Germanic Philology Department (Academician Stepan Demianchuk International University of Economics and Humanities, Rivne)
ZOOSEMIZM AS A STRUCTURAL COMPONENT OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: INTERPRETIVE AND LINGUOCULTURAL ASPECTS Анотація. У статті досліджеено спосіб членування образної ситуації у фразеологічних одиницях із зоосемізмами, який визначає зоолексему центральною в розумінні фразеологічного значення в цілому. Розкрито, що вивчення інтерпретаційних значеннєвих аспектів у дослідженні фразем англійської мови дає можливість об’єктивно осмислити контрасти мовних традицій на рівні безпосереднього спостереження. Проаналізовано лінгвокультурний аспект тлумачення фразеологічних одиниць із зоосемізмами.
Ключові слова: зоосемізм, фразеологічна одиниця, зоофразеологізм, інтерпретаційний аспект, лінгвокультурний аспект. Аннотация. В статье исследован способ членения образной ситуации в фразеологических единицах с зоосемизмами, который определяет зоосемизм центральным в понимании фразеологического значения в целом. Раскрыто, что изучение интерпретационных смысловых аспектов в исследовании фразем английского языка дает возможность объективно осмыслить контрасты языковых традиций на уровне непосредственного наблюдения. Проанализирован лингвокультурный аспект толкования фразеологических единиц из зоосемизмами.
Ключевые слова: зоосемизм, фразеологическая единица, зоофразеологизм, интерпретационный аспект, лингвокультурный аспект. Annotation. The way of dividing the figure situation at the phrasems with the zoosemizms is mostly presented in this article. These components are central in comprehending of the phrase logical sense in general. Investigation of the interpretation semantic aspects in the research gives a possibility to comprehend the contrasts of the languages traditions in the level of immediate perception. Lingua-cultural aspect of perception is analyzed.
Keywords: zoosemizm, phraseological unit, zoophraseological unit, interpretation aspect, linguo-cultural aspect. Phraseme is the most favorable unit for the study of speech activity, thinking process manifested in the possibility of designing its values. It is focused on the cultural experience of a native speaker, as well as association caused by psychological factors (fear, pain, joy, indignation etc.), folklore, mythological experience etc. The main tendencies of phraseological research are a desire to find out semantic and stylistic features of phraseological units, their functioning with different thematic and semantic components in paradigmatic and semantics etc. which determines the relevance of our research.
Theoretical aspects of phraseological units functioning were studied by L. Bulakhovsky, M. Demsky, O. Kunin, O. Smyrnytsky, V. Vynogradov; L. Zherdieieva, V. Zhukov, comparative studies of different semantic aspects of phrase-thematic fields were researched by B. Azhniuk, V. Gak, O. Kryzhanska, Yu. Solodub, T. Tsyvian; etymology of phraseological units with a zoosemizm component and linguo-cultural aspect of their interpretation were investigated by I. Golubovska, O. Nykonchuk, N. Petrova, H. Kryvenko, V. Tymofeieva.
The aimof this article is to describe our research of phraseological units of the English language, containing the key element – the name of the animal, as well as to set the implementation of zoosemizm as the core in interpretation of semantic aspect.
The cognitive aspect of the language takes the essential place in the names of the animals. Phraseme is the most favorable field for study of this aspect which is associated with the design values. Firstly, phraseology unit occurs not only as a speaker's desire to express his emotions, for example «bored, sad» but to force a listener to follow his own experience for, that is, to interpret it. Secondly, the value and the feature are transmitted through a phraseme. The animal world is very diverse, people depended and still depend on the natural world, it is not surprising that this multifaceted world is reflected in folk art. A characteristic feature of the zoosemizms usage as the phraseological units of the English language is the high degree of idioms and imagery with a deep contest of nominating. As a rule, similar denotative value of zoosemizms in different languages possesses imagery since the associative representations of animals in various cultures of the world are not identical. The matches are extremely rare, and are the result of unified perception of the world, similar cultural, national and historical characteristics .
Zoophraseological units of the English language, clearly expressing identity, national character, the way of thinking of the people, was formed during the centuries-long evolution, influenced by contacts with other peoples and cultures. Researchers have identified several sources of origin of the English zoophraseological units, namely: actually English (to like a horse –їстизасімох; a black sheep –соромвсім’ї); the Bible quotations (the golden calf – золотийбик; every dog is a lion at home –кожнажабавсвоємуболотіголовна); idiomatic expressions of writers (e.g., from Aesop's fables: to kill the goose that laid the golden eggs – «вбитикурку, щонесезолотіяйця»); proverbs and sayings (a bad man is like a wolf in the flock– лихийчоловікугромаді, щововкустаді; never look a gift horse in the mouth – дарованомуконевівзубинезаглядають) [2; 3].
There are the following ways of interpreting sustainable idiomatic combinations: full compliance (equivalent) when, in the language of the translation is the unit, an equivalent in meaning, function and stylistic characteristics of the original units and matches it completely or figuratively in the content. In other words, the metaphor used in proverbs, is based on identical images. For example: а wolf guzzles counted sheep too (вовк і полічених овець краде); оne must howl with the wolves (з вовками жити – по-вовчому вити); to set the wolf – to keep the sheep (біда вівцям, де вовк пастушить); a bad man is like a wolf in the flock (лихий чоловік у громаді, що вовк у стаді); a wolf doesn’t steal where he lives (там вовк не бере, де сам живе); the great fish eats up the small (велика риба маленьку цілою ковтає); fish and company stink in three days (риба та гості через три дні псуються); never offer to teach fish to swim (не вчи рибу плавати); never look a gift horse in the mouth (дарованому коневі в зуби не заглядають); it is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has been stolen (замкнув стайню, як коней вкрали); a horse stumbles that has four lags (кінь на чотирьох ногах, та й то спотикається). [4, p. 92]. In this way of interpretation idioms don’t lose lexical figurativeness of zoosemizms. A zoosemizm is, in fact, the species name, age and sex groups or an individual (a nickname) of animals. If it is a fish in the Ukrainian language, it also remains a fish in the English language, as well as a wolf and a horse. Just the sentence structure is broken, and that is the disagreement, and according to the method of interpretation is calque.
The following method of interpretation is units with partial match, when a phraseological unit of the translated language is equivalent to the original in its meaning, function and stylistic coloring, but is distinguished by its imaginative content. We propose to consider the following examples: dog doesn’t eat dog (вовк вовка не кусає) – literally: собака не їсть собаку; the leopard cannot change its spots (вовк линяє, а натури не міняє) – literally: леопард не в змозі замінити свої плями; put a cat among the canaries (замкнув вовка між овець) – literally: заперли кота серед канарейок; beware of a silent dog and still water (бережіть козла спереду, коня ззаду) – literally: бережіться мовчазного собаки та сталої води; geese with geese and women with women (знайся кінь з конем, віл з волом, свиня з свинею, рівня з рівнею) – literally: гусакизгусаками, жінказжінками.Exploring this way of interpretation it is worth noting that the lexical correspondence is lost. A proverb or a saying of the target language is an equivalent to the proverb and the saying in its original meaning, function and stylistic coloring, and loses the imaginative correspondence. The technique of calque is used in conveying of the meaning of the phraseological unit. It differs only in the fact that the calque is not treated with any rhythmic and metaphorical organization. The proverb is reproduced almost word for word, and the context suggests that the reader has to deal with a steady turnover, recreated according to the originals. We offer to consider the following examples: a wolf in sheep's skin (вовквовечійшкурі); as hungry as a wolf (голодний, яквовк); a man is a wolf to a man (людиналюдинівовк); neither fish nor flash (ніриба, нім’ясо); fish begins to stink at the head (рибапочинаєгнитизголови). Full specificity of sayings is retained in the samples. A method of calque saves all imaginative lexemes in their original form, in the form of the original language.
Another way of interpretation is the translation of the phraseological unit that is a descriptive way of interpretation. The lack of the correspondences influences the choice of this method of interpretation. It concludes in the interpretation, the explanation of the phraseological unit, which in the translated text practically ceases to exist as an independent linguistic unit and dissolves in the context. Stylistic and information losses are inevitable in this method of interpretation. Here are some examples of this method of translation of the phraseological unit: it is a good fishing in troubled water (вкаламутнійводірибаловитьсякраще). Lexical background is usually preserved in this method of interpretation. Figurative language, of course, is dissolved. In fact in this method of interpretation, a translator has a privilege to choose or remain the figurative language of the original, or change it. For example, the same proverb from Ukrainian into English could be translated as: we can catch much fish in troubled water. In this case zoosemizm’s vocabulary would retain the form of the original[5, p. 34]. So, there are several ways to interpret the phraseological unit from one language to another. In some ways the lexical figurativeness of idioms is saved, in other cases it is not saved. Despite this, it should be noted that in any case the lexical units – «zoosemizm» – in both languages even if they have different values, they perform the same function.
Analysis and research of phraseological units with zoolexemes allow us to group them by certain criteria. One of the largest groups is phraseological units, the semantic core of which is marked by domestic animals. The lexeme «pig» (свиня) is often used in idiomatic expressions of English. For example: greedy pig – прожадібнулюдину; a pig in a poke – кітвмішку (прощосьневідоме). In general, the English language contains a large number of phraseological units with zoosemizms associated with such animals as a dog and a cat. This is because these animals constantly live together with a man. For example, in the idiom: let sleeping dog lie(нечіпайлиха, коливоноспить) sleeping dog in the English language acquires the meaning of unpleasant secrets you need to watch out for. In this case, denotative value remains unchanged, however, the imagery changes depending on associations of that or other animal a native speaker has. In the idiom enough to make a cat speak (дивомдивуєшся) the image of the cat relevant to the animal image, silent creatures that can suddenly speak, if a miracle happens.
It is known that in every language the phraseological derivative ability of different lexemes, their, so to say, popularity varies. The whole of phrase-thematic fields and micro-fields are formed around some of these. Naturally, this factor significantly influences the formation of national specificity of the language. Phraseological unit with zoosemizms in the internal semantic structure also form certain thematic groups. Matching of multilingual phraseological units allows feeling the ethnic contrast. For example, zoosemizm «rabbit’s soul» reflects the psychological state of fear. A component of which is a zoosemizm «rabbit’s», which is associated with cowardice, fear. The English equivalent of «yellow dog» («жовтий собака» literally) in its structure has color component «yellow» / жовтий and a zoosemizm «dog» /собака. However, the dominant among these components is color component «yellow», which causes the phraseological meaning: yellow in the English tradition testifies to the cowardice of animals (dogs); those who have the same color are never winners in dog fight tournaments [6, p. 15].
Another group of phraseological unit contains a lexeme that indicates the names of wild animals. For example, the leopard cannot change its spots(вовклиняє, анатуринеміняє) – literally: леопардневзмозізмінитисвоїплями; to act as a chameleon (частозмінюватисвоюдумку), or to dance like an elephant(танцювати, якслон).
Let’s consider zoophraseological units which have a contact with parts of the body that is the third number of group. For instance, we analyze the following phraseological unit, namely: a bird in the hand is worth two the bush (кращесиницявруці, ніжжуравельвнебі); to have butterflies in the stomach (сильнохвилюватися, мурашкипоспині). A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush
zoosemizm (bird) hand (part of the body)
Pic. 1. Phraseological unit of zoosemizm and part of the body
This proverb refers back to Middle Age period during the falconry hunt where a bird in the hand (the falcon) was a valuable asset and certainly worth more than two in the bush (the prey).
To have butterflies in the stomach
zoosemizm (butterflies) stomach
Pic. 2. Phraseological unit of zoosemizm and part of the body
When the British say they have butterflies in the stomach, they mean such a thrilling situation, which we mark with phraseological unit «cats scratch», «creepy», or «neither alive nor dead». Usually it means all: butterflies in the stomach, and cats, and the creeps, and it, for example, occurs when we go to the exam and haven’t completely learnt everything or when we speak in front of the large audience.
We analyze zoophraseological units which have elements of perception, namely: to see pink elephants (допитисядобілоїгарячки) та to smell a rat (запідозритищосьнедобре).