Pic. 3. Phraseological unit of zoosemizm and perception
The colour name «white» is used in a figurative meaning «very»; in combination with a symptom «fever» which is interpreted as «distraction», «a serious illness»; in the synthesis of the action – «drink to distraction, until a serious illness». In English the counterpart of color component «pink» (рожевий) in combination with a zoosemizm «elephants» (слони) and the action «to see» (бачити) means «to see pink elephants». So, in English, the process of intoxication is interpreted as serious illness («біла гарячка»), in English this state is considered idiomatically as the contemplation of pink elephants (the unrealistic phenomenon), i.e. as hallucinations. The important semantic feature of zoosemizm is the stability of metaphorical value, zoosemizm component stores it in different structures – from the root word to the core of a phraseological unit through the components in a compound word. This structural continuity corresponds to the semantic content of zoosemizm.
Summarizing the results of the study, we can conclude that the difference/similarity of the logical-semantic transformations in the structure of English and Ukrainian idioms is quite visual. Such comparisons are of interest not only in theoretical aspects but also contribute to realization that we are interesting for ourselves as a language identity and for those who does not speak our language. According to B. M. Azhniuk, «the language of self-knowledge through a comparison with other national systems provides insight into the expressive richness of the native lexicon and the possibilities of its development; it is able to raise the prestige of the native language as a unique treasury of folk understanding, intellect, experience, as unique share in the spiritual heritage of the mankind» [7, p. 86].
The language learning traditionally involves such a national-cultural layer, as phraseology. It requires appeal to the cumulative function of a language, the presentation of the linguistic and cultural component – «zoosemizm», which has become storage of order-related information for a considerable development of the society. So, zoosemizms as structural components of a phraseological unit of the English language were formed within many centuries, having stood in its development many changes, which are reflected in the cultural memory of the native speakers. Thus, the national memory is formed and preserved, expanding the horizons of worldview in the study of a foreign language. 1. Forostyuk I. V. Porivnyal'nyy analiz frazeolohichnykh ekvivalentiv iz zoonimichnym komponentom anhliys'koyi, ukrayins'koyi ta rosiys'koyi mov / I. V. Forostyuk // Visnyk Luhans'koho natsional'noho universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka. Filolohichni nauky. – 2013. – № 14 (3). – S. 274–280. – [Elektronnyy resurs] // Rezhym dostupu : nbuv.gov.ua/j-pdf. 2. Kunin A. V. Frazeolohyya sovremennoho anhlyyskoho yazyka: Opyt systematyzyrovanoho opysanyya / A. V. Kunin. – M. : Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenyya, 1972. – 288 s. 3. Azhnyuk B. M. Natsional'na frazeolohiya v inshomovnomu zistavlenni / B. M. Azhnyuk // Ukrayins'ka mova i literatura v shkoli. – 1990. – № 5. – S. 82–87. 4. Lytvynov P. P. Frazeolohiya / P. P. Lytvynov. – M. : Prymstroy. – M., 2001. – 169 s. 5. Hak V. H. Porivnyal'na leksykolohiya / Hak V. H. – M. : Mezhdunar. otnoshenyya, 1977. – 246 s. 6. Redford E. Pochemu anhlychane tak hovoryat. Posobye dlya ped. ynstytutov y fylolohycheskykh fakul'tetov unyversytetov / E. Redford– Moskva-Lenynhrad : Prosveshchenye, 1964. – 256 s. 7. Azhnyuk B. M. Natsional'na frazeolohiya v inshomovnomu zistavlenni / B. M. Azhnyuk // Ukrayins'ka mova i literatura v shkoli. – 1990. – № 5. – S. 82–87.
UDС [81’373]: 811.111: 001.4 Motuzko Oksana, the 3rdyearstudentof Institute of Foreign Philology; research advisor – Makaruk L. L., PhD, Associate Professor (Lesia Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Lutsk)
STRUCTURE OF ADVERTISEMENT AND ITS PECULARITIES Анотація: У статті досліджено особливості сучасної англомовної реклами. Висвітлено основні частини рекламного тексту, їх функції. Розкрито специфіку реклами як засобу впливу на людську свідомість. Виділено основні види каналів сприйняття інформації та обґрунтовано їх роль у створенні ефективної реклами.
Ключові слова: реклама, гіпноз, рекламний текст, канали сприйняття інформації. Аннотация: В статье исследованыособенности современной англоязычной рекламы. Освещены основные части рекламного текста, их функции. Раскрыта специфика рекламы как средства воздействия на человеческое сознание. Выделены виды каналов восприятия информации и охарактеризована их ключевая роль в создании эффективной рекламы.
Ключевые слова: реклама, гипноз, рекламный текст, каналы восприятия информации. Annotation: This article deals with the peculiarities of English-language advertisement. Attention is given to the main parts of advertisement text, its functions. Particularity of advertisement as a mean of influencing the human consciousness has been outlined. Three channels of perception have been identified and their role in creating an effective advertisement has been described.
Key words: advertisement, hypnosis, advertisement text, channels of information perception. Advertising,the most visible service industry in the last one hundred years, is one of the most complex and challenging phenomena [1, р. 2]. Also itis a form ofmarketingcommunicationused to promoteorsellsomething, usually a business'sproduct orservice. The aim of advertising is to draw our attention and make us more flexible in order to buy an advertised product.
Advertisement is a special mean of human communication. There is no doubt that advert plays really important role in our society; we can see it in all spheres of our life: on TV, on radio, in newspapers, in the street, on buildings etc. Sometimes people perceive advertisements unconditionally and it locates unconsciously in our mind. For this reason learning of structure, peculiarities of advertisements are the most actual problems in modern linguistics.
«There’s no second chance at making a good first impression» . This quote has been attributed to poet, playwright and novelist Oscar Wilde and to American humorist Will Rogers, Mark Twain. I absolutely agree with this quote. First impression is always very important. Moreover, it is an essential rule for a effective advertisement. If adverts don’t catch our attention within seconds they are considered to be unsuccessful.
Philosophers, psychologists, linguists always pay a great attention to this interesting theme. Especially linguists are very interested in this area. They are William F. Arens,CortlandL.Beauvais, Y. B. Korneva, N. L. Kovalenko, T. M. Livshyts, O. I. Zelinska, V. V. Zirka. These scientists pay their attention to structural and functional characteristics of advertisements.
The purpose of article is to analyze the structure and the peculiarities of adverts as a psychological tool, which influences people.
Advertisement text is a unique object of research, which is vital in different linguistic schools all over the world and it has a great impact on people. It should provide reliability, durability, and effectiveness in the communication process. Advertisement – is a process, which has a purpose to overspread information through mass media and sell goods and services. This definition helps us to realize functions, targets and ways of creating advert. In addition, advertisement – is a special type of communication. It is formed in order to influence human subconscious.
In order to understand how advertisers achieve their goal we should take a look at the components of written advertisements. Bovée&Arens (1992 : 291) consider that the key elements of a written advertisement are the following: the headline, the visual, subheads, body copy, slogans, logos, signature [1, c. 4].
Many advertisers consider the headline the most important element in a print advertisement. The words that will be read first or that are positioned to draw the most attention. Therefore, headlines are usually set in larger type than other portions of the advertisement. The role of the headline is to attract attention to the advertisement and to select the reader – that is it tells whether the advertisement’s subject matter interests the reader. Bovée&Arens (1992 : 295) classify the advertising headlines into five basic categories: benefit, provocative, news/information, question and command [1, р. 5].
CortlandL.Beauvais, William F. Arensconsider that there are six functions of headline: attract attention, introduce the information, in which readers are interested in, express the main ideas, enter reader to the main advertisement text, persuade them that this product will be useful for them and show the modernity of the product [3, р. 152].
Subheads are little headlines which purpose is to reinforce the headline and advertisement theme. The body copy or the basic advertisement text is set in smaller type than headlines or subheads and it is their logical continuation. It is «text under title or under subtitle, which reveal main sense expressed in the title» [4, р. 288]. Its main purpose is to persuade people to buy products.
Basic advertisement text should consist of three parts: a introduction, a part of giving arguments and a conclusion. The text should explain how the product or service will be useful for the consumer and it may concentrate on one or several benefits of the product. Slogans are successful headlines, which become standard statements not only in advertising but also in everyday life. Bovée&Arens (1992 : 308) consider that slogans gave two basic functions: «to provide continuity for a campaign» and «to reduce a key theme or idea to a brief, memorable positioning statement» [1, р. 8]. O. Feofanov divided slogans into three categories: company slogan, slogan of advertising campaign and slogan which is related to some goods or services [5, р. 384].
Effective slogans are short, simple, easy to repeat by consumers and they should help them to differentiate advertised product from another. Here are some famous slogans: «If anyone can, Canon can» (Canon Cameras), «Think different» (Apple Computers), «Just do it» (Nike), «Because you’re worth it…» (L’Oréal).
The logotypes (logos) and signature cuts are the other elements of a written advertisement. They appear in all company advertisements and are like trademarks because they give the product individuality and provide quick recognition.
There is no doubt that the main feature of an advert is the accuracy of the information. For this reason it is a major mistake to use unchecked information which really does not correspond to reality.
Advertising text has specific structure. It usually consists of such parts: 1) title; 2) slogan; 3) basic advertising text; 4) echo-phrase. The most important part of the advert is a title. It should be eye-catching, colorful, noticeable and it should urge people to read advertisement from the beginning up to the very end.
CortlandL.Beauvais, William F. Arensconsider that there are six functions of title: attract attention, introduce the information, in which readers are interested in, express the main ideas, enter reader to the main advertisement text, persuade them that this product will be useful for them and show the modernity of the product [6, р. 152]. Of course, except the structure of advert there are a lot of other features, related to the functions of advertisement. On the one hand, advert is the source, which helps advertising agencies and companies to earn a lot of money. On the other hand at the same time it is a great tool of manipulation. Groups of people in advertising agencies combine their forces in order to return simple advert to advert with psychological peculiarities.
They usually use for example hypnosis and suggestion. Hypnosisis a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity for response to suggestion.Suggestionis the psychological process by which one person guides the thoughts, feelings, or behavior of another . Sometimes it is really hard to understand how advertisement can influence our mind.
Russian researcher M.O. Manuilov consider that «purpose of advertising is to influence on mind of men, reveal their interest and urge them to buy a product» [9, p. 7]. Other functions of text of mass media – informative, actual and aesthetic – help to realize the main purpose of advertisement [10, р. 112].
Sometimes it is very hard to create a noticeable advert. There are some very useful points in order to create an advert. 1. Come up with a catchy, snappy slogan; 2. Avoid the same old; 3. Use a persuasive technique; 4. Know the customer; 5. Find a way to connect the desires of consumers to what you're advertising; 6. Try to make sure your advertisement will age well; 7. Make sure all the relevant information is included; 8. Decide where and when to advertise.
There is no doubt, that it is very hard to create a very powerful advert. We know three channels through which we perceive information. They are visual, auditory and kinesthetic. Visual learnershave a preference for seeing; auditory learnersbest learn through listening and tactile/kinesthetic learnersprefer to learn via experience. For this reason it is popular to use in the advert some visual marks or signs. Also colors of the advertisement are very important. A colored advert can attract attention very quickly. These tips really simplify a process of perceiving information from the advert.
A.N. Lebedev-Lyubimov considers that the most effective advertisement should give the opportunity for the customers to be an advertising agent and use the product in order to attract attention [10, р. 30]. So, customer plays an important role in the process of advertising communication.
To sum up, it must be said, that advertising – is the special type of text of mass communication and it is hard to imagine our modern life without it. Advertising texts usually depend on extra lingual features such as: peculiarities of target audience,purpose of advert and their functions, type of goods and services etc. Advertisements have a purpose to overspread information through mass media and urge people to buy a product. There are seven key elements of a written advertisement. They are headline, the visual, subheads, body copy, slogans, logos, signature.
1.Barbu Marius-Ionuţ М.Structures of Advertisements in the English language.Lucrare ştiinţifică. – Editura Sfântul Ierarh Nicolae,2010 [Electronic resource] // Access : https:// www.google.com.ua/webh 2. Quotes About First Impressions, 2015 [Electronic resource] // Access : http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/first-impressions3. Bove K. Sovremennaja reklama / K. Bove, V. Arens. – Tol'jatti : Izd. Dom «Dovgan'», 1995. – 704 s. 4. Bernadskaja Ju. S. Tekst v reklame // Ju. S. Bernadskaja. – M. : JuNITI-DANA, 2008. – 288 s. 5. Feofanov O. A. Relama : novye tehnologii v Rossii / O. A. Feofanov. – SPb. : Piter, 2000. – 384 s. 6. Bove K. Sovremennaja reklama / K.Bove, V.Arens. – Tol'jatti : Izd. Dom «Dovgan'», 1995. – 704 s. 7. Hypnosis [Electronic resource] // Access: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyp. 8. Suggestion [Electronic resource] // Access : https://en.wikipedia.org/9. Zil'bert B. A. Socio-siholingvisticheskoe issledovanie tekstov radio, televidenija, gazety / B. A. Zil'bert. – Saratov : Izd-vo Sarat. un-ta, 1986. – 210 s. 10. Lebedev A. N. Psihologija reklamy / A.N. Lebedev– SPb. : Piter, 2006. – 384 s.
UDC 81.373 Musatiuk Maryna, the 3rd year student of History and Philology Faculty; research advisor – Popova D. A., PhD, Associate Professor (Academician Stepan Demianchuk International University of Economics and Humanities, Rivne)
SYNTACTICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIVISIBILITY OF SET EXPRESSIONS IN MODERN ENGLISH LANGUAGE Анотація. У статті досліджено актуальну проблему лінгвістики –cинтаксичну й морфологічну подільність фразеологізмів у сучасній англійській мові. Проаналізовано основні класифікації фразеологічних одиниць, їх структурну та морфологічну подільність, охарактеризовані риси, що підвищують їх єдність і стабільність. Аргументовано, що стійкі вирази протиставляються вільним фразам та напіввільним комбінаціям.
Ключові слова: фразеологізм, фразеологічна одиниця, стійкий вираз, структурна та морфологічна подільність. Аннотация. В статье исследована актуальная проблема лингвистики – синтаксическая и морфологическая делимость фразеологизмов в современном английском языке. Проанализированы основные классификациифразеологических единиц, их структурная и морфологическая делимость, и охарактеризованы особенности, повышающие их единство и стабильность. Аргументировано, что Устойчивые выражения противопоставляются свободным фразам и полусвободным комбинациям.
Ключевые слова: фразеологизм, фразеологическая единица, устойчивое выражение, структурная и морфологическая делимость. Annotation. The article considers the actual linguistic problem, namely syntactical and morphological divisibility of set expressionsin modern English. The basic classifications of idioms, their structural and morphological divisibility are analyzed, and the features that enhance their unity and stability are described. Set expressions are contrasted to free phrases and semifixed combinations.
Key words: idiom, phraseological unit, stable expression, structural and morphological divisibility. Languages differ greatly in their idiomaticity in the forms they have adopted, the combinative power of words and their lexico-semantic combinability. The actuality of research is very acute. A lot of prominent linguists have been studying English idioms.
Various aspects of idiomatic phrases have been described in a considerable number of investigations by N. Amosova, R. Ginzburg, S. Khidel, I. Krylova, A. Koonin, E. Partridge, E. Radford, N. Rayevskaya and many others. Investigation of English phraseology was initiated by A. Koonin, whose dictionary of English idioms has valuable information in this branch of vocabulary studies. Morphological divisibility is evident when one of the elements (but not the last one as in a compound word) is subjected to morphological change.
The aim of the article is to make an investigation in the field of English phraseology and to look through the features enhancing their unity and stability, their structural and morphological divisibility.
In this article we are going to deal with set-expressions or phraseological units – word-groups consisting of two or more words whose combination is integrated as a unit with a specialized meaning of the whole, such as not for the world, with half a heart, ups and downs, for love or money, off and on, up to the mark, ships that pass in the night, close at hand, give a green light to, red-letter day, sleep like a log, pull somebody's leg, that's a horse of another colour, can the leopard change his spots? it goes without saying, and so on. Stability of such word-groups viewed in terms of statistical probability of co-occurrence for the member words has been offered as a reliable criterion helping to distinguish set expressions from free phrases with variable context.
А. V. Koonin gives us such classification of idioms: 1. With one peak (one peak phraseological units, one form word, one notional) Ex.: to leave for good, by heart. 2. Phrasemes with the structure of subordinate or coordinate wordcombination. Ex.: a bitter pill to swallow.3. Partly predicative (a word subordinate clause) Ex.: It was the last straw that broke the camels back.4. Verbal with (infinitive, passive) Ex.: to eat like a wolf. 5. Phrasal units with a simple or complex sentencestructureEx.: There is a black sheep in every flock. It was the last straw that broke the camel’s back.
Structural-semantic classification:1. Nominative(A hard nut to crack). 2. Nominative–communicative(The ice is broken)3. Interjectional & modal (Oh, my eye! (= Oh, my God!))4.Communicative (proverbs, sayings)(There is no smoke without fire). 5. Nominative:Substantive: crocodile tears;Adjective: as mad as a hatter, as cool as a cucumber;Adverbial:by & by, to & fro;Verbal: to live like a lord .
A. V. Koonin shows the possibility of morphological changes in adjectives, forming part of phraseological units: He's deader than a doornail; it made the night blacker than pitch; The Cantervilles have blue blood, for instance, the bluest in England .
N. N. Amosova gives the following examples: He played second fiddle to her in his father's heart. (Galsworthy) ...She disliked playing second fiddle. (Christie) To play second fiddle to occupy a secondary, subordinate position. I hate skeletons in the cupboard. (lb.)The possibility of a morphological change cannot regularly serve as a distinctive feature because it may take place only in a limited number of set expressions (verbal or nominal).
The question of syntactic ties within a set expression is even more controversial. All the authors agree that set expressions (for the most part) represent one member of the sentence, but opinions differ as to whether this means that there are no syntactical ties within set expressions themselves. Actually the number of words in a sentence is not necessarily equal to the number of its members, which may be proved by the following examples of attributes expressed by group Genitive: the woman who laced too tightly's name, or by a quotation group: (in one of her) Oh-why-did-l -ever-marry-you moods. Both examples are constituted by two syntactical elements only .
The existence of syntactical relations within a set expression can be proved by the possibility of syntactical transformations (however limited) or inversion of elements and the substitution of the variable member, all this without destroying the set expression as such. By a variable element we mean the element of the set expression which is structurally necessary but free to vary lexically. Sometimes the variation is limited as in the case of to cat a poor figure. It is usually indicated in dictionaries by indefinite pronouns, often inserted in round brackets: tomake (somebody's) hair stand on end 'to give the greatest astonishment or fright to another person'; to sow (one's) wild oats 'to indulge in dissipation while young'. The word in brackets can be freely substituted: tomake (my, your, her, the reader's) hair stand on end.
The sequence of constant elements may be broken and some additional words inserted which, splitting the set expression, do not destroy it, but establish syntactical ties with its regular elements. The examples are chiefly limited to verbal expressions, e.g. The chairman broke the ice-*-Ice was broken by the chairman; He burnt his boats and ... – > Having burnt his boats he ... Pronominal substitution is illustrated by the following example: «Hold your tongue, Lady L.» – «Hold yours, my good fool». (N. Marsh, quoted by N. Amosova) .
All these facts are convincing manifestations of syntactical ties within the units in question. Containing the same elements these units can change their morphological form and syntactical structure; they may be called changeable set expressions, as contrasted to stereo-typed or unchangeable set expressions, admitting no change either morphological or syntactical. The examples discussed in the previous paragraph mostly belong to this second type, indivisible and unchangeable; they are nearer to a word than their more flexible counterparts. This opposition is definitely correlated with structural properties. Obviously lexical substitution may be combined with syntactical transformation; compare: Iwould never have dared talk to my mother like that when I was her age. She'd have knocked me into the middle of next week knocking somebody into the middle of next week (Delaney) .
All these examples proving the divisibility and variability of set expressions throw light on the difference between them and words.
Set expressions have their own specific features, which enhance their stability and cohesion. These are their euphonic, imaginative and connotative qualities. It has been often pointed out that many set expressions are distinctly rhythmical, contain alliteration, rhyme, imagery, contrast, are based on puns, etc. These features have always been treated from the point of view of style and expressiveness . Their cementing function is perhaps no less important. All these qualities ensure the strongest possible contact between the elements, give them their peculiar muscular feel, so that in pronouncing something like stuff and nonsense the speaker can enjoy some release of pent-up nervous tension . Consider the following sentence: Tommy would come back to her safe and sound (O'Flaherty). Safe and sound is somehow more reassuring than the synonymous word uninjured, which could have been used .
These euphonic and connotative qualities also prevent substitution for another purely linguistic, though not semantic, reason – any substitution would destroy the euphonic effect. Consider, for instance, the result of synonymic substitution in the above alliterative pair safe and sound. Secure and uninjured has the same denotational meaning but sounds so dull and trivial that the phrase may be considered destroyed and one is justified in saying that safe and sound admits no substitution.
Rhythmic qualities are characteristic of almost all set expressions. They are especially marked in such pairs as far and wide, far and near 'many places both near and distant'; by fits and starts 'irregularly'; heart and soul 'with complete devotion to a cause'. Rhythm is combined with reiteration in the following well-known phrases: more and more, on and on, one by one, through and through. Alliteration occurs in many cases: part and parcel 'an essential and necessary part'; with might and main 'with all one's powers'; then and there 'at once and on the spot'. It is interesting to note that alliterative phrases often contain obsolete elements, not used elsewhere. In the above expressions these are main, an obsolete synonym to might, and rack, probably a variant of wreck.
As one of the elements becomes obsolete and falls out of the language, demotivation may set in, and this, paradoxical though it may seem, also tends to increase the stability and constancy of a set expression. The process is complicated because the preservation of obsolete elements in set expressions is in its turn assisted by the features mentioned above.
Some more examples of set expressions containing obsolete elements are: hue and cry 'a loud clamour about something', a synonymic pair with the obsolete word hue; to leave in the lurch 'to leave in a helpless position', with the obsolete noun lurch meaning 'ambush'; not a whit 'not at all', with the obsolete word whit (a variant of wight 'creature', 'thing'), not used outside this expression and meaning 'the smallest thing imaginable'.
Rhyme is also used very often: fair and square 'honest'; by hook or by crook 'by any method, right or wrong' (its elements are not only rhymed but synonymous). Out and about 'able to go out' is used about a convalescent person. High and dry was originally used about ships, meaning 'out of the water', 'aground'. At present it is mostly used figuratively in several metaphorical meanings: 'isolated', 'left without help', 'out of date'. This capacity of developing an integer (undivided) transferred meaning is one more feature that makes set expressions similar to words .
Semantic stylistic features contracting set expressions into units of fixed context are simile, contrast, metaphor and synonymy. For example: as like as two peas, as old as the hills and older than the hills (simile); from beginning to end, for love or money; more or less, sooner or later (contrast); a lame duck, to swallow the pill, in a nutshell (metaphor); by leaps and bounds, proud and haughty (synonymy). A few more combinations of different features in the same phrase are: as good as gold, as pleased as Punch, as fit as a fiddle (alliteration, simile); now or never, to kill or cure (alliteration and contrast). More rarely there is an intentional pun: as cross as two sticks means 'very angry'. This play upon words makes the phrase jocular. The comic effect is created by the absurdity of the combination making use of two different meanings of the word cross adjective and noun .
To a linguistically conscious mind most set expressions tend to keep their history. It remains in them as an intrinsic force, and the awareness of their history can yield rewarding pleasure in using or hearing them. Very many examples of metaphors connected with the sea can be quoted: to be on the rocks, to rest on the oars, to sail close to the wind, smooth sailing, to weather the storm. Those connected with agriculture are no less expressive and therefore easily remembered: to plough the sand, to plough a lonely furrow, to reap a rich harvest, to thrash (a subject) out.