So, for example, V. М. Fadeiev distinguishes two stages in organization of home reading according to the aim of the foreign languages studies at modern school. The first stage is reading as the process of information recipience from the text. This stage is obligatory in the work at any text. However, the work at the great part of the texts for independent home reading must be come to an end. The second stage is conversation on the material of home reading. This stage of work must be selective and expand only to the part of the most corresponding texts or their fragments for speech practice .
The other researcher G. G. Skazkiv distinguishes two stages in organization of home reading control. The first stage is an analysis of lexical grammatical difficulties of the text, activation of new lexical material and control of information understanding. The second stage is creative discussion of the content of the text .
There are various points of view concerning that, what stages of work at the text must be. Some scientists mind the pre-text exercises, others consider that such exercises are necessary, because, these tasks firstly remove speech difficulties of the text and in that way they make reading prepared, and secondly, these exercises develop reproductive skills, enrich and activate the students’ dictionary. But, in any case, it is necessary to conduct work with unknown words which one can meet in the text, then the students read the text, and a teacher controls understanding of the contents. The above-mentioned types of work are conducted at the lesson in the form of discussion-debate, and later it is possible to offer some creative writing task concerning the problems of the text to the students.
1. Ishcuk N. Uchebnik po vneklassnomy chteniiu dlia uchashchikhsia v starshykh klassakh srednei shkoly / N. Ishcuk – Anhliiskii yazyk. – 1998. – № 41 – S. 4. 2. Nikolaieva S. Yu. Osnovy suchasnoi metodyky vykladannia inozemnykh mov / S. Yu. Nikolaieva – K. : Lenvit, 2008. – 285 s. 3. Vyshnevskyi O. I. Metodyka navchannia inozemnykh mov : Navch. posibnyk / O. I. Vyshnevskyi – K. : Znannia, 2010. – 206 s. 4. Fadeev V. M. Domashnee chtenie v starshih klassah, ego organizatsiia i sposoby kontrolia / V. M. Fadeev. – Inostrannyi yazyk v shkole. – 1979. – № 6. – S. 30. 5. Knyga vchytelia inozemnoi movy : Dovidkovo-metodychne vydannia / Uporiad. O. Ya. Kovalenko, I. P. Kudina. – Kharkiv: TORSING PLYUS, 2005. – 240 s. 6. Skazkiv G. G. Priamye proverki domashnego chteniia v 8-m klasse / G. G. Skazkiv – Inostrannyi yazyk v shkole. – 1982. – № 4. – S. 20. 7. Balakireva M. Ispolzovanie knigi dlia chteniia na urokakh inostrannogo yazyka, prilozhenie k gazete «Pervoe sentiabria» / M. Balakireva. – Angliiskii yazyk. – 1998. – № 8 – S. 15. 8. Bespalchikova E. V. Obuchenie analizu teksta / E. V. Bespalchikova. – Inostrannyi yazyk v shkole. – 2002. – № 2. – S. 12. 9. Panov A. I. Urok proverki domashnego chteniia / A. I. Panov / Inostrannyi yazyk v shkole. – 1967. – № 6. – S. 14.
UDС 81.373 Kataieva Nataliia, the 3rd year student of History and Philology Faculty;research advisor – Popova D. A., PhD, Associate Professor (Academician Stepan Demianchuk International University of Economics and Humanities, Rivne)
SOME ISSUES ON THE CELTIC BORROWINGS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Анотація. В статті досліджено актуальну проблему лінгвістики – кельтські запозичення в англійській мові. Проаналізовано як кельтська мова вплинула на фонологію англійської мови та результати цього впливу. Досліджено три форми існування кельтської мови, вивчена історія походження кельтської мови та її особливості. Охарактеризовано відмінності між сучасною англійською та староанглійською мовами.
Ключові слова: кельтська мова, запозичення, зміни у англійській фонології, походження кельтської мови, відмінності між сучасною та староанглійською мовами. Аннотация. В статье исследована актуальная проблема лингвистики – кельтские заимствования в английском языке. Проанализировано как кельтский язык повлиял на фонологию английского языка и результаты этого влияния. Исследованы три формы существования кельтского языка, изучена история происхождения кельтского языка и его особенности. Охарактеризованы различия между современным и староанглийским языками.
Ключевые слова:кельтский язык, заимствования, изменения в английской фонологии, происхождение кельтского языка, различия между современным и староанглийским языками. Annotation.Thearticleisdevotedtotheactuallinguisticproblem–theCeltic borrowings in the English language.It was found how Celtic language affected on English phonology and what we got as a result. It was detected three forms of Celtic’s exist. The history of Celtic language origin and its feature was studied. Differences between Modern English and Old English were investigated.
Keywords:Celtic language, borrowings, changes in English phonology, origin of Celtic, differences between Modern and Old English. At first, to begin the investigation we must know what role languages play in our life is. What are the rules and principles that govern the combination of the building blocks of language?
Different rules and principles govern the combination of the different building blocks of language, and different branches of linguistic research have developed different kinds of models to explain this. Linguists explore the basic principles that govern all languages as well as the way languages vary in how they build up words, phrases and sentences [1, c. 42].
How do languages change over time?
Languages are constantly changing, each generation of speakers alter their language in some way. Languages can change because of contact between speakers of different languages or varieties of the same language. Social barriers such as social segregation, different cultural or ideological backgrounds or the construction of political borders may also lead speakers to actively differentiate their language use in order to assert separate identities.
How is language acquired and how are languages learned?
Language is acquired by children in all societies and only humans can acquire language. Linguists explore the way in which children acquire their language(s) and the way that the interaction between the child and the environment lead to complete mastery of language a short period of time [2, c. 88].
What are language disabilities?
Although language can be acquired with ease it can also be impaired later in life. One of the most common causes of language impairment is stroke. Damage to those parts of the brain that deal with language can result in language impairment of different types and severity. This is known as Aphasia. Study of such damage to language can tell us a lot about the way the brain encodes and processes language.
What determines how we use language?
We regularly adapt the way we use language to suit the setting. We speak differently in formal and informal situations, we do not speak in the same way to our boss or teacher as we do to our friends. And we adapt our way of speaking based on how we want to present ourselves to others [3, c.32].
The problem of Celtic influenceson the English language was investigated by such well–known linguists, as Calvert Watkins, Robert Stockwell, Martin J. Ball, James Fife, Steven Laker and Peter Schrijver. Latter have shown that there are signs of Celtic influence on English sounds. This influence on English phonology (the sounds used by a language) is seen in the formation of dialects, particularly in the northern regions.
The Celtic borrowings are interesting by their origin. The origins of the word «Celtic» begins with ancient Greek in which «kelto» was used as a derogatory catch–all name for strangers and foreigners. For the Romans, the terms «Celt» and «Gaul» were pretty much interchangeable and were used to describe the inhabitants of Roman territories in France and Northern Italy. It is interesting to note that in Roman – occupied Britain, the term «Celt» was not used in describing the native inhabitants. Yet, if we consider someone who speaks a Celtic language to be a Celt, then the occupants of Britain would have been Celts when the Romans invaded [4, p. 101].
By 400 BCE, the Celtic languages were widely spoken in Europe, and particularly on the British Isles. During the Roman occupation of Britain, the Romans and the Celts often intermarried, and the two cultures often merged. After the Romans withdrew from Britain in 410 CE, the Celtic-speaking tribes predominated in Scotland, Wales, and Cornwall [5, p. 76].
The Celtic linguistic influence. Despite their long association with Britain, the Celts had little impact on the development of the English language. Celtic influence is seen primarily in geographic place names, such as Avon, Dover, Kent, York, and Thames, rather than in everyday vocabulary. Even in vocabulary, the Celtic borrowings by English are often geographic. Celtic, the language of the inhabitants of Britain and the first about which there exists a definite knowledge, belongs to the Western Branch of the Indo-European languages and existed in three forms: Gaulish, Brythonic and Goidelic/
In his 1707 book, Archaeologies Britanica, Edward Lhuyd noted the similarities between Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Irish Gaelic, and Scots Gaelic. He was the first to group them together under the generic term Celtic. He also pointed out that these languages belonged to two distinct sets which are distinguished by their pronunciation. He grouped Breton, Cornish, and Welsh as P-Celtic languages and Irish Gaelic and Scots Gaelic as Q-Celtic [7, p. 125].
– Gaulish: was spoken in northern Italy and France during the time of Roman Republic but died out around the 6th century AD.
– Brythonic: was the language of the Celtic inhabitants of Britain and is the ancestor of Welsh, Cornish and Breton. Even with the spread of English following the Anglo-Saxon invasion, it continued to be spoken for quite a length of time in southwest Scotland, Cumbria, Cornwall and Devon, as well as in Wales. However, by the close of the Middle Ages it had died out in the two northern areas. Cornish on the other hand continued to be used as a first language until the beginning of the 19th century.
– Goidelic: was the Celtic language originally spoken in Ireland but spread to the Isle of Man in the 4th century AD and to Scotland in the century following. It is the language from whence came Erse (Irish Gaelic), Manx and Scottish Gaelic.
The main feature which distinguishes Brythonic from Goidelic is the development of the Indo-European /kw/. This becomes /p/ in former and /c/ in latter.
Irish Gaelic: Modern English has about 40 words which were borrowed from Irish Gaelic, including: shamrock, leprechaun, galore, banshee, shillelagh, blarney, bother, keen, colleen. In Ireland, the majority of place names are from anglicized Gaelic. Thus the Gaelic «baile» («homestead or settlement») becomes the anglicized «bally» in Ballymena and «bealach» (pass or passage) becomes the anglicized «bally» in Ballyclare; «doire» («grove or oak grove») becomes «derry» in Derry (Londonderry); «cill» («church») become «kil» in Kildare; and so on.
Scots Gaelic: Modern English has about 30 words which were borrowed from Scots Gaelic, including: clan, plaid, cairn, bog, inch, whisky (from uisce beatha meaning «water of life».) The majority of place names in the Highlands of Scotland are from Scots Gaelic or from an anglicized Scots Gaelic.
Welsh: Modern English has about 10 words which were borrowed from Welsh, including: crag, penguin, gull. The majority of place names in Wales are from Welsh or from an anglicized Welsh [8, p. 117].
With regard to the phonology of Irish English, P. W. Joyce, writing in 1910, points out: «The Irish language has influenced our Irish-English speech in several ways. To begin with: it has determined the popular pronunciation, in certain combinations, of three English consonants, t, d, and th, but in a way (so far as t and d are concerned) that would not now be followed by anyone even moderately well educated».
Joyce also notes: «As for the English th, it may be said that the general run of the Irish people never sound it at all; for it is a very difficult sound to anyone excepting a born Englishman, and also excepting a small proportion of those born and reared on the east coast of Ireland».
Based on the book «Celtic and Latin borrowings in the English language»by Kiktenko S. and Kozlovskaya A., it can be argued that the English vocabulary is of tripartite nature: – native words; – borrowed words; – hybrids. Native words are the oldest part of vocabulary going back to the West Germanic dialects brought to Britain in the 506 centuries. They are very old, essential and polytunctional; they make new words and expressions. Loan-words, or borrowings, make the major of the vocabulary. The source is a language which gives a word to a taker. Origin is a place where a word was born. E.g. Paper: Egypt (the origin) – > Latin – > Greek – > French (the source) – > English Among the sources of borrowings we come across Celtic elements which belongs to die Romantic group. The Celtic element in (lie English word-stock is very small (170 words). Among die words which may be regarded as Celtic loan words are the following: – English: down «hill» – Old Irish: dun– English : bin– Gael: benn; Welsh: ben ; etc. The word «cumb»is found in some place-names: e.g. Duncombe, Batcombe, Eastcomb etc. Some Celtic words have survived in the names of rivers, mountains, towns: e.g. English: Avon, the name of a river; also Stratford-on-Avon, the birthplace of Shakespeare (Gael: amhuim «river»). Celtic words may be found among the proper names: e.g. Donald (вождь) Arthur (шляхетний), etc.[9, p. 136].
Pre-Celtic and Celtic languages. Pre-Celtic Britain is difficult to recognize as the Romans in their four centuries of rule obliterated any remains of former peoples. For Ireland, however, the picture is somewhat better as this island was not Romanised and so the historical tradition is less broken. Thus one knows that there were four invasions of Ireland, associated with the following peoples: 1) the Cruthin, 2) the Érainn (known also as the Fir Bolg, maybe identical with the Belgae in Britain), 3) a group of tribes among which are the Lagin and 4) finally the Goidels, whose name eventually gives us the term Gael both for Celtic inhabitants and the variety of their language spoken in Ireland and Scotland (Goidelic, later termed Gaelic). The term Cruithin is probably a Gaelic form of Priteni, i.e. Britons found in Ptolemy’s geography, the material for which can be dated to roughly the first century A.D. The term Goidel appears to be a borrowing from Welsh Gwyddel the modern term for «Irishman», known from the seventh century [10, p. 54].
In Britain the Celtic (pronounce: /keltik/, not /seltik/) influence is only felt indirectly. There are very few Celtic loan words in Old English; the word dry [dry:] «magician» (cf. druid) is one of them. The largest body of evidence for Celtic culture is onomastic, for instance the names of Kent and London are probably Celtic. Parts of word names may also stem from this source, e.g Avon «river» or Bray «hill» [11, p. 93].
In recent years much research has been done on the possible influence of British Celtic on early forms of English. The influence was a low-level one, not in the area of vocabulary, but of phonology and syntax with the transfer forms appearing only towards the end of the Old English period and the beginning of the Middle English period [12, p. 107].
According to the research it was found that in general the demise of inflections is linked to the phonetic reduction of unstressed syllables in Old English. This tendency to reduce such syllables may go back to contact with British Celtic which also showed the same feature [13, c.170].Some grammatical features of later English are shared with Celtic, but not with other Germanic languages, e.g. the widespread use of continuous tenses, e.g. I am thinking about linguistics, compare German Ich denke uber Linguistik nach, lit. «I think over linguistics after». Another feature is the compulsory use of personal pronouns with items of so-called «inalienable possession», e.g. My tooth is sore, again compare German Mir tut der Zahn weh, lit. «To-me does the tooth soreness». This is also true of general expressions of relevance in English, e.g. All his money was stolen, compare German Ihm wurde das ganze Geld gestohlen, lit. «To-him was the whole money stolen» [14, p. 122].
For the results of the article, English today is, of course, one of the most frequently spoken languages in the world. There are today six «living» Celtic languages of which four have substantial numbers of native speakers: Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic, Welsh, and Breton. Two other Celtic languages – Cornish and Manx – have been undergoing revitalization movements. There are currently more than a million speakers of these Celtic languages. 1. Ball, Martin J. and James Fife (ed.) 1993. «The Celtic languages». London : Routledge. 2. Jackson, Kenneth 1953. «Language and history in early Britain». Edinburgh: University Press. 3. Bradley, Henry (1904). «The Making of English». London : Macmillan (Repr. 1948). 4. Lhuyd Edward «Archaeologia Britanica»: Texts & Translations. Celtic Studies Publications – Cymru, 2009 – 262 p.5. On the rise of «Celtic syntax in Middle English», in : Peter J. Lucas und Angela M. Lucas. 6. Biggam C. P. (2000). «Grund to Hrof : Aspects of the Old English Semantics of Building and Architecture». In Coleman and Kay (2000 : 103–125). 7. Birnbaum, Henrik, and Puhvel, Jaan (eds.) (1966). «Ancient Indo-European Dialects». Berkeley and Los Angeles : University of California Press. 8. Blake, Norman F. (ed.) (1992). «The Cambridge History of the English Language», p. 1066–1476. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press9.
Видавництво Кембриджського університету (англ. Cambridge University Press, скор.: CUP) - видавництво, що входить до складу Кембриджського університету в Англії.
Kiktenko S., Kozlovskaya B. Celtic Borrowings in the English Language [Text] / S. Kiktenko, A.B. Kozlovskaya// Tezisy dokladov nauchno-tehnicheskoj konferencii prepodavatelej, sotrudnikov i studentov. – Sumy, 1998. – S. 135–136. 10. Green, Dennis Howard (1998). «Language and History in the Early Germanic World». Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. 11. Mettinger, Arthur (eds.) (2001). «Language Contact in the History of English». Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. 12. Stockwell, Robert (eds.) (2002). «Studies in the History of the English Language» : A Millennial Perspective. Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter. 13. Vennemann, Theo (ed.) (1989). «Atlantis Semitica : Structural Contact Features in Celtic and English». In Brinton (2001: 351–369). 14. Watkins, Calvert (1962). «Indo-European Origins of the Celtic Verb» : The Sigmatic Aorist. Dublin : Institute for Advanced Studies.
UDC 371.311: 811.11 Krupenko Victoria, the 5 thyear student of History and Philology Faculty; research advisor – Kovalenko L. A. a senior lecturer of Romano-Germanic Philology Department (Academician Stepan Demianchuk International University of Economics and Humanities, Rivne)
COMMUNICATIVE EDUCATION IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES Анотація. У статті досліджено сутність й зміст комунікативного навчання у процесі вивчення іноземних мов у початковій школі, зокрема принципи навчання, що покладені в основу цього процесу. Розглянуто об’єкт навчання іноземної мови, модель процесу спілкування, а також вікові особливості молодших школярів. Звернено увагу на застосування рольової ситуації на заняттях, які стимулюють спілкування.
Ключові слова: комунікативно-ігрове навчання, принцип природної штучності та комунікативно-ігрової діяльності. Аннотация. В статье исследована сущность и содержание коммуникативного образования в процессе изучения иностранных языков в начальной школе, а именно принципы обучения, положенные в основу этого процесса. Рассмотрены объект обучения иностранному языку, модель процесса общения, а также учтены возрастные особенности младших школьников. Особое внимание обращено на применение ролевой ситуации на занятиях, которые стимулируют общение.
Ключевые слова: коммуникативно-игровое обучение, принцип естественной искусственности и коммуникативно-игровой деятельности. Annotation. This article studies the main idea and contexts of the communicative education in the process of learning of foreign languages in the primary school, namely the principles of education, which create the foundation of this process. The object of learning a foreign language, model of communication and the age characteristics of primary school children also takes into account. Particular attention is paid to the using of the role-playing situations in the classroom that promote communication.
Keywords: communicative and game education, the principle of natural artificialness and communicative and game activity. The National Doctrine of Education Development in Ukraine in the XXI century proclaimed strategy of rapid, innovative development of advanced science and education, providing conditions for the development of self-affirmation and self-identity throughout life. Today, elementary school, such as learning a foreign language is at the epicentre of attention, because the early years of public education and upbringing of children have a very important impact on the further development of intelligence, creativity, character formation, self-development of personality and so on.
Effectiveness of role-playing games in learning a foreign language in primary school children studied in works of Charles Amonashvili, N. Bibik, M. Vashulenko, B. Druz, Kalynetska, S. Korotkov, N. Kudykina, M. Mykytynska, R. Osadchyk, N. Pidhorna, O. Savchenko, H. Tsuckerman, N. Chkanikova, T. Shmakova and other scientists.