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Відділ освіти артемівської міської ради міський методичний кабінет опис педагогічного досвіду вчителя англійської мови артемівського навчально-виховного комплексу

Відділ освіти артемівської міської ради міський методичний кабінет опис педагогічного досвіду вчителя англійської мови артемівського навчально-виховного комплексу




Сторінка7/16
Дата конвертації10.03.2017
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Task 19

The Rio Grande

Although not the longest river in America, the Rio Grande is one of the most important. But, unlike other significant rivers, it is not used for shipping. In fact, oceangoing ships cannot navigate the waters. No, what makes the Rio Grande so important is its location. Since 1846, it has been the official border of Texas and Mexico.



The Rio Grande is either the fourth or fifth longest river system in North America. It all depends on how it is measured. Because the river twists so much, it occasionally changes course. And these course shifts can cause it to be longer or

shorter. At its last official measure, the Rio Grande clocked in at 1,896 miles. The river starts in Colorado and extends downward to the Gulf of Mexico.

Downward is the best way of describing it too. Not only does the river extend south, but it also starts in the mountains and gets lower and lower in elevation as it extends to the Gulf.

Its name is Spanish for the “Big River,” but the Rio Grande is actually known as Rio Bravo in Mexico. “Bravo” translates as “furious,” so the name makes sense. Because of its twists and turns, it certainly does seem to be angrier than most rivers!

The Rio Grande today is mostly used as a source of drinking water. Sadly, much of the water has been drained from the river. Parts of the river are almost dry! This is because people use more water from the river than the river can get back from rain and other sources. Experts are working to correct this, though, with hopes of restoring the river to its past strength. Today, the river is important as a source of water for Texans and Mexicans. More important, it is a symbol of cooperation between two nations. Though borders like the Rio Grande separate nations, they are also shared spaces. The Rio Grande is therefore a symbol of friendship and peace between two peoples.



Variant 1

Read the text and state if the statements are true or false.



  1. It is the source of drinking water for most of the United States.

  2. Rio Grande is the official border of Texas and Mexico.

  3. It is the longest river in the United States.

  4. It is known in the world by two different names.

  5. It is very important for two countries today.

  6. Rio Grande and Rio Bravo are two different rivers.

Keys

Variant1


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Write a short essay about your last camping holiday ( 12 points)

Task 20

GOLD FEVER

Something gold was sparkling at the bot­tom of the miner's pan. After searching all over the world, Robert Henderson finally found gold in northwest Canada, in 1896. One of the first to find gold, he staked his claim at the site, naming it Gold Bottom. Days later when another prospector, George Washington Carmack, struck it rich at nearby Rabbit Creek, history had indeed been made—the gold rush had begun!

News of gold traveled across the United States and Canada, and people from all over caught "gold fever." Leaving their families, thousands of gold-seekers joined what became known as the "great stampede/' Visions of quick riches lured the stampeders to the goldfields in the Klondike region of Canada's Yukon Territory.

Freezing temperatures, starvation, and the rugged Chilkoot Pass were enemies of the optimistic prospectors. Because starvation was a major hazard, the Canadian North West Mounted Police ordered that each person should bring along a year's supply of provisions. Some carried as much as 2,500 pounds of food, equipment, and clothing. Without a horse, a prospector would haul about 65 pounds at a time, set it down and go back for the next snow-covered load. He or she would walk thousands of miles back and forth over the Pass. Many discarded items littering the trail were testament to the exhaustion of the men and women.

The prospectors struggled through snow and ice. In 1898, an avalanche buried 70 miners. Ten survived the cascading ice and snow. Other gold-seekers lost noses, fingers, hands or feet to frostbite. Just a brief stop in the freezing wind could be fatal. According to historians, of the 100,000 men and some women who set out seeking gold in the Klondike, only 30,000 to 40,000 actually reached their destination.

Skagway, Alaska was a critical stopping place for gold seekers. Within days of the first gold discovery the town was in chaos. So many thieves, pickpockets, gamblers and swindlers invaded Skagway that it was known as "the roughest place in the world." Other mining towns quickly cropped up in the area. In Dawson, the Klondike's capital, 500 houses were built in six months. When food and supplies became scarce, prices soared sky high. Sled dogs, selling at $350 a piece, soon became unavailable, and miners had to settle for tired old horses.

Reaching the Yukon Territory became easier when the railroad was completed in 1899, but by then the stampede was over. In three short years all the streams had been claimed. For the miner who had struck it rich all the hassles were worthwhile. About $5 million in gold was mined in just two months after the first claims were made, and by 1904, $100 million in gold had been mined from the region. Ten years later all that re­mained were empty, crumbling buildings and rusty machinery. Today, only a memory is left of the Klondike men and women who risked injury and death in search of that elusive gold metal.

1.Find the English equivalents to the following words and phrases (3 points) :

Золоталихоманка, шукачізолота, головний ризик, річний запас провізії, прибиватися через сніг та кригу, досягти місця призначення, підскочити до небес, заява, іржава техніка,відкриття, недоступний, їздові собаки.



2.State whether the statements are true or false (6 points ) :

  1. Gold in northwest Canada was found in the 19th century.

  2. Very few people caught “gold fever”.

  3. The major hazard in the Canadian North was freezing temperatures.

  4. A critical stopping place for gold seakers was in one of the states of the USA.

  5. Skagway was “the roughest place in the world” because there were a lot of criminals there.

  6. Skagway was the Klondike’s capital.



3. Complete the table (9 points ) :

Time

Action

Result

1896







within days of the first

gold discovery









two months after the first

claim were made









1898







1899







1904







ten years later







4.Write a short paragraph desctribing your preparations for the expedition to the Klondike region ( 12 points).




Додаток №3 (тематичні тести з читання)

EARTH

TEXT 1


Task type: Multiple choice

Read the article. Complete the statements (1 -10) below the text by choosing the best answer (A, B, C). Write your answers in the boxes below the task.

Controversial pesticides killing wild birds as well as bees

Declining numbers of starlings and tree sparrows in the Netherlands linked to chemical used to protect crops from insects





Controversial pesticides blamed for the loss of bee colonies may also be having much wider environmental effects and damaging wild bird populations, research has shown. Scientists in the Netherlands linked declines in farmland bird species, such as starlings and tree sparrows, with a neonicotinoid chemical used to protect crops from insect pests. Nine of the bird species studied fed exclusively on insects, and all relied on insects to feed their young. The findings, published in the journal Nature, suggest that the harmful environmental effects of neonicotinoids go far beyond their alleged impact on bees. They echo the claims made in Rachel Carson's influential book Silent Spring, published in 1962, which led to a nationwide ban on the pesticide DDT in the US. Silent Spring, which brought fears about the environmental hazards of indiscriminate pesticide use to the attention of the American public, focused mainly on the fate of birds. The Dutch scientists showed that local bird populations were significantly lower in areas where there was more water contamination by the pesticide imidacloprid. All but one of the species studied, which also included the mistle thrush, yellow wagtail and Eurasian skylark, were affected between 2003 and 2010. Six populations saw significant declines of 3.5% a year in areas where surface water concentrations of imidacloprid were higher than around 20 nanograms per litre. The evidence points to a depletion of the birds' primary food source – insects – rather than any direct effect due to ingestion of the chemical. Imidacloprid is one of three neonicotinoids affected by a two year Europe-wide ban that came into force last December amid controversy about their impact on bee populations. But the ban, imposed to protect bees, only applies to flowering crops and those sown in the spring and summer. The chemicals continue to be used on other major crops such as winter wheat and barley, and sugar beet, and neonicotinoids can still legally be sprayed on garden and park plants. The authors of the new study, led by Dr Caspar Hallmann from Radboud University in Nijmegen, concluded in their paper: ''Our results on the decline of bird populations suggest that neonicotinoids pose an even greater risk than has been anticipated. ''Cascading trophic (food web) effects deserve more attention in research on the ecosystem effects of this class of insecticides and must be taken into account in future legislation.'' Neonicotinoids are usually applied as ''seed dressings'' to arable crops. Seeds are coated with the chemical so that it is absorbed and spread through the tissues of the growing plant. All parts of the plant then become toxic to insect pests feeding on it. But during sowing, a little of the chemical is lost as dust that blows away to be deposited on other vegetation. Some also leaches into the soil and is washed into waterways. The fear is that by these indirect routes the pesticides can affect aquatic insects and non-targeted plants eaten by beetles, grasshoppers and caterpillars. These invertebrates provide food not only for birds but also some mammals such as shrews and bats. While accepting the EU ban, the UK government's position – supported by the National Farmers Union – is that it does not accept its scientific foundation. Conservationists have been alarmed by a fall in wild bird populations in the UK. Since 2003, there has been a 13% decline in numbers of British farmland birds, according to Government figures released in October last year. Although the rate of decline has slowed in recent years, there are half as many farmland birds today as there were 40 years ago. Farmland birds are said to be suffering from the removal of hedges and trees that provide them with habitats as well as the loss of prey. Dr David Gibbons, head of the Centre for Conservation Science at the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), said: "This elegant and important study provides worrying evidence of negative impacts of neonicotinoid insecticides on birds. "Usage of these pesticides has been particularly high in some parts of the Netherlands and it is unclear whether impacts on birds are likely elsewhere, including in Britain, but it remains a real possibility. "Monitoring of neonicotinoid pollution in UK soils and waterways is urgently required, as is research into the effects of these insecticides on wildlife. In the meantime, the ban on neonicotinoid use on flowering crops should remain until these chemicals are proven safe for pollinating insects." A Defra spokesperson said: "Pesticide use across Europe is tightly regulated to protect the environment and public health – they are a safe, effective and economical means of managing crops. "We continue to review evidence on neonicotinoids."

By Agencies

1. Controversial pesticides are blamed for the____________.

a. loss of domestic insects.

b. loss of wild birds.

c. loss of bees as well as wild birds.

2. Wild birds populations have been damaged because_______________.

a. birds eat poisonous seeds.

b. farmers use chemicals against birds to protect their crops.

c. birds cannot find insects to eat as they are killed by the farmers.

3.The pesticide DDT was banned in the US due to__________.

a. the claims of the US government.

b. the book which tells people about the fate of wild birds.

c. numerous newspaper articles against soil contamination.

4. The book about the hazardous consequences of unlimited pesticide use drew the public attention to __________.

a. the fate of rare species of birds.

b. the possible distinction of birds.

c. the increasing number of birds.

5. The populations of birds declined because of ________________.

a. water contamination.

b. soil contamination.

c. air contamination.

6. The ban protecting bees only applies to flowering crops and those sown in the spring and summer and that is why______________.

a. helps to protect birds as well.

b. is useless for saving birds.

c. helps to protect insects eaten by birds.

7. ''Seed dressings'' are neonicotinoids which ____________.

a. make the seeds toxic for insect pests.

b. make all the parts of the plants poisonous.

c. aren't absorbed and spread through the tissues of the growing plant.

8. By the indirect routes the pesticides can affect __________.

a. both birds and animals.

b. only aquatic insects and non-targeted plants.

c. only beetles, grasshoppers and caterpillars.

9. Forty years ago there were ________________.

a. too many farmland birds.

b. fewer hedges and trees.

c. twice as many farmland birds as there are nowadays.

10. Pesticide use across the UK must be monitored with the purpose of_____________.

a. studying the influence of these chemicals on wildlife.

b. studying the influence of these chemicals on crops.

c. its tightly regulating.



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TEXT 2

Task type: True / False

Read the article. Mark statements (1 -10) below the text as T (true) or F (false). Write your answers in the boxes below the task.

Britain still hasn't learned the lessons of the Somerset floods

Climate change makes more extreme weather events inevitable - and we are not yet adequately prepared, says the author of a new Government report


No one can say with confidence whether or not the coming winter will bring floods on the same scale as the last. The weather does not allow us the luxury of such predictability this far in advance. What we can say is that the risks of severe flooding and other extreme weather events are likely to rise in the coming years. The climate is changing because of the carbon dioxide that we have pumped into the air over the last 250 years, and that does not come without consequences. More extreme events, more often: this is what the climate models indicate. The issue is what we are going to do about it. The destruction wrought last winter should focus our minds on reducing the risks that climate change poses to our citizens, communities and businesses. It should also provide a wake-up call over the benefits of acting. If it hadn’t been for past investment in flood defences, and improved flood forecasting and emergency planning, the impacts of the severe weather would have been much worse.

Despite the pain of the winter, and the injection of £270 million to put right the damage done to flood defences, three-quarters of our flood defence structures are not being maintained at an ideal level. Hundreds of new flood protection projects won’t be delivered until 2019 at the earliest. This winter’s floods made a deep impression on our psyche, but has this translated into action to better protect people in the future? In early December last year, we experienced the largest tidal surge in 60 years, and 18,000 people had to be evacuated from low-lying areas along the east coast. The government has not commissioned a review to learn the lessons arising from this significant event. We are putting up buildings at a faster rate in areas of high flood risk than elsewhere: in Sedgemoor District Council in the Somerset Levels, for instance, 900 new homes in areas at a significant risk of flooding have been built this century. While intensive farming is making the land less able to absorb water and more likely to erode silt into rivers. This will increase the need for dredging. We are paving over permeable surfaces in towns and cities – the proportion of paved area in gardens leaped from 28 per cent to 48 per cent in 10 years – creating run-off problems and overwhelming drains in heavy rainstorms.

Flooding is not the only risk increased by climate change. Paradoxically, many parts of England, especially in the south and east, may not have enough water to meet future demand in the coming decades. Heatwaves are likely to become more common, so we ought to begin to adapt buildings in preparation. Instead, we find that many buildings where vulnerable people live, including hospitals and care homes as well as typical modern homes, were built for yesterday’s climate and are already difficult to keep cool.

Climate change impacts, including an increased risk of flooding, and sea level rise, are inevitable as a result of greenhouse gases that we have already put into the atmosphere. The first choice we face is whether we do more to protect ourselves against them, or suffer the consequences – which will almost certainly be more expensive as well as more disruptive. As a statutory adviser, our committee is making a number of recommendations that can reduce the risks that lie ahead. Regulations to avoid new development causing surface water flooding, as recommended in the Pitt Review, should be introduced without delay. Councils should publish statutory flood risk management plans and strategies, and enforce regulations to prevent more gardens being lost to hard surfacing. New policies to begin to address the risks from overheating buildings should be introduced, to promote cost-effective measures such as better ventilation, shading and insulation. A new standard should be introduced to ensure that new buildings are designed with the higher temperatures of the future in mind. All of these measures are simple and could in principle be pursued straight away. But we cannot counter climate impacts just by adapting. The second choice before us is whether we allow climate risks to escalate by continuing to emit greenhouse gases, or whether we follow the path of reducing our emissions and encouraging other countries towards the same goal.

The 2008 Climate Change Act, with its legally binding targets on emissions, was a powerful statement of UK leadership, but we are far from alone. More than 500 pieces of legislation related to climate change have been introduced in 66 countries, which between them account for 88 per cent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. The actions of other countries reduce our future risk, just as our actions reduce theirs. The precise impacts of climate change on the UK are impossible to predict with certainty, but this is not an excuse for inaction. Preparing for impacts while continuing to reduce emissions is the sensible, pragmatic choice: adaptation and mitigation going hand in hand to safeguard public health and protect the economy, as the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recommended earlier this year.

In the summer next year, the ASC will be reporting to Parliament on whether progress is being made, and crucially, whether the action being taken is making a difference. We will not be able to prevent altogether the climate changing and the resulting impacts. But we can become more resilient and reduce the costs and consequences.

By Lord Krebs, the chair of the Adaptation Sub-Committee of the Committee on Climate Change

1. The weather does not allow to predict that the risks of severe flooding and other extreme weather events are likely to rise in the coming years.

2. The climate models indicate there will be more extreme events and they will happen more often.

3. The damages caused by the flood would be severer but for improved flood forecasting and emergency planning.

4. Most of the British flood defence structures are being maintained at a perfect level.

5. The British building companies are putting up more buildings in areas of high flood risk than in other parts of the country.

6. Dredging is not possible in the areas of intensive farming as the latter makes the land less able to absorb water and more likely to erode silt into rivers.

7. It is very important to build new houses taking into account the climate changes especially heatwaves.

8. There are two choices of the development of the situation with the climate changes.

9. All the countries should work together to reduce the risks of greenhouse gas emissions.

10. The British government will not be able to get into details of the climate changing and the resulting impacts.


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TEXT 3


Task type: Banked gap-filling
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  • Variant 1 Read the text and state if the statements are true or false.
  • Write a short essay about your last camping holiday ( 12 points)
  • Додаток №3 (тематичні тести з читання) EARTH
  • Read the article. Mark statements (1 -10) below the text as T (true) or F (false). Write your answers in the boxes below the task.