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Відділ освіти артемівської міської ради міський методичний кабінет опис педагогічного досвіду вчителя англійської мови артемівського навчально-виховного комплексу

Відділ освіти артемівської міської ради міський методичний кабінет опис педагогічного досвіду вчителя англійської мови артемівського навчально-виховного комплексу




Сторінка8/16
Дата конвертації10.03.2017
Розмір1.75 Mb.
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Read the article. Some parts of the text are missing. Choose the most appropriate sentence from the list (A- J) for each gap (1 -10) in the text. Write your answers in the boxes below the task.

African elephants have the best smell in the animal kingdom

Researchers have discovered that African Elephants have the largest number of genes dedicated to smell of any mammal


If you have ever wondered how an elephant smells, scientists have the answer. Pretty good. Researchers have discovered that African Elephants have the largest number of genes dedicated to smell of any mammal. (1)_____________. In comparison, humans and other primates have a poor sense of smell. "The functions of these genes are not well known, but they are likely important for the living environment of African elephants," said author Dr Yoshihito Niimura of the University of Tokyo. "Apparently, an elephant's nose is not only long but also superior. (2)____________. In a study published in Genome Research, scientists examined the 13 mammal species and found that African Elephants have twice the number of smell genes as dogs and five times more than humans. They have around 2,000 genes alone that are dedicated to scent. (3) ___________. The study found that 20,000 genes are responsible for the sense of smell in mammals, of which around half are functional, but the collections differ for each species. (4) ___________. “The large repertoire of elephant (smell) genes might be attributed to elephants’ heavy reliance on scent in various contexts, including foraging, social communication, and reproduction,” added DrNiimura African and Asian elephants possess a specific scent gland, called the temporal gland, behind each eye, and male elephants exude an oily secretion during annual mating, which is characterized by increased aggressiveness and elevated levels of testosterone . (5) ___________. And previous studies have revealed that, African elephants can reportedly distinguish between two Kenyan ethnic groups—the Maasai, whose young men demonstrate virility by spearing elephants, and the Kamba, who are agricultural people that pose little threat to elephants through smell. (6) ______________. However our upright posture lifted our noses far from the ground where most smells originate, diluting scent molecules in the air. (7) ________________. Yet smells are still having a greater impact than we realise, warning of danger, triggering memories and even helping us choose a partner. (8) ___________. Some experts believe that humans have a far greater sense of smell than previously thought but daily showers and fridges, which mask bad odours, have stopped us noticing. (9)____________. But now researchers say it is more like one trillion. Scientists believe our sense of smell is much closer to that of animals than appreciated. (10)_________.

By Sarah Knapton, Science Correspondent

A The sense of smell is critical to all mammals, and they use it for sniffing out food, avoiding predators, finding mates and locating their offspring.

B Research has also shown that elephants have well-developed olfactory systems that include large olfactory bulbs and large olfactory areas in the brain.

C And today many smells which still give us hints about rot and poor hygiene are masked behind perfumes, air fresheners and deodorants.

D The sense of smell evolved over millions of years and our human ancestors would have used it as a tool to spot disease, avoid rotten meat and poisonous plants and sniff out food.

E Many studies have shown that pheromones emitted from the sweat glands play an important role in physical attraction.

F Given the size of their trunks, and how important it is to their survival, it is probably unsurprising that an elephant’s nose is not only the longest in the animal kingdom, but also the most effective.

G Horses have around 1,000 smell genes, rabbits around 750 and rats about 1,200.

H But we no longer pay attention because smells are often hidden, meaning that important information is lost.

I Humans in comparison have just under 400 and other primates like chimpanzees, even less.

J Previously it was estimated that we could smell 10,000 odours.


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ANSWERS EARTH

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EDUCATION Text 1

Task type: True / False

Read the article. Mark statements (1 -10) below the text as T (true) or F (false). Write your answers in the boxes below the task.

Pupils 'should get lessons in manners and punctuality'

All schools should stage compulsory lessons in good manners, punctuality and tidiness amid fears pupils are failing to develop “character”, according to a leading headmaster.



Classes in personal development should be given as much prominence as qualifications in traditional academic subjects as part of the school timetable, it is claimed. Anthony Seldon, the Master of Wellington College, Berkshire, says that tuition in “character education” is needed to prepare young people for the workplace and university. The best state and independent schools place a strong emphasis on the development of old fashioned values, he says. But DrSeldon warns that the “development of the child” has been sidelined in too many schools because of the need to hit exam targets and climb official league tables. In a speech next week, he will call for a General Certificate of Character Education (GCCE) to be introduced in all British secondary schools to give students a grounding in good manners, self-control, responsibility, punctuality, kindness and tidiness. The comments come amid continuing concerns over the number of children leaving school lacking the basic skills needed for their future life. According to figures, around a million 16- to-24-year-olds – almost one-in-five – are currently without a job or college course. Many companies claim they are being forced to give school-leavers crash courses in employment skills to bring them up to scratch. Delivering Birmingham University’s annual Priestley Lecture, Dr. Seldon will say that character development is the vital missing link in the Government’s education policy. “Schools are rightly emphasizing exam results and academic attainment,” he will say. “They need also to emphasize the development of good character, which is essential for the smooth running of schools, for future employability, for higher education and for good citizenship.” Dr. Seldon, who pioneered the development of “happiness lessons” at Wellington and has been a strong critic of exam-driven schooling, says a number of top state schools in Britain and the US are now focusing on personal development as much as exam preparation. But he will warn that it is still a minority pursuit, insisting that too many schools are obsessed with “teaching to the test”. “It used to be the case that the public schools emphasised the development of character,” he says. “Now the best state schools are leading the way. “They are teaching their students character – good manners, self-control, self-reliance, responsibility, punctuality, determination, resilience, appreciation, kindness and tidiness. The impact is dramatic. “The Government wants to build on a big society. But they are not doing enough to build capacity amongst young people when they are at school. "The emphasis has tilted too far to exam preparation and too far away from developing the child.” The comments will be made in a speech at the university’s School of Education on Wednesday, January 23. It follows a speech by the Prince of Wales last year, when he said that schools should provide more team games, outdoor activities and practical workshops to help pupils develop a strong character. He said teachers should educate the "whole person" instead of just focusing on narrow academic disciplines.

ByGraeme Paton, Education Editor

1. The development of a pupil's personality should be paid as much attention as their knowledge.

2. "Character education" is unnecessary for the young people's future.

3. The personal development of schoolchildren has been sidelined because the best state and independent schools place a strong emphasis on the development of old fashioned values.

4. A special document is called for to be introduced to help students in their personal development.

5. After graduating from school students are well-prepared for their future career and life.

6. According to Dr. Seldon character development is the very important link which the Government’s education policy lacks.

7. Dr. Seldon was the first to introduce “happiness lessons” in all the schools of Great Britain.

8. Many schools consider the preparation for the exams to be the main target of the education.

9. If the Government wants to build on a big society they should do more to developing the children.

10. Dr. Seldon said teachers should educate the "whole person" instead of just focusing on narrow academic disciplines.



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TEXT 2

Task type: Matching sentences to gaps in the text

Read the article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the list (A -J) the most appropriate sentence for each gap (1 -10) in the text. Write your answers in the boxes below the task.

Career Planning: Finding Your Calling and Living it Out



When I first met Marisa, she had a highly successful career by any objective measure.  She worked as a product manager at a Fortune 500 company, was pulling down a six-figure salary, and was next in line for a promotion.  She had a very nice house in a very nice neighborhood, and already was sitting on a substantial nest egg, despite being only in her late 30s. (1)________. It sounded like the outcome of an ideal career plan. There was just one problem:  Marisa was miserable.  She could hardly get out of bed and go into work anymore.  She hated her job. She loved the trappings of the job, sure—the prestige, the pay, the benefits package.  (2)_____________. Marisa felt trapped. I asked her: “If money was no object and you could do whatever you want, what would that be?” She paused, and silently reflected, before almost longingly replying: “I want to find my calling.”What is a calling?


Some people think about their work as “just a job,” little more than a means to a paycheck, or a way to pass the time.  Others view their work as pathway to power, prestige, and wealth—a way to satisfy strong needs for achievement.  People who view their work as a calling are different.  They appreciate being able to earn a living, and they want to be successful, sure. (3)_________. People with a calling feel a kind of transcendent summons, a sense of being compelled or drawn not just to a certain type of work, but to approach their work in a purpose-driven way. Researchers in psychology and other social sciences have begun to seriously study what it means to have a calling, and what difference it makes. (4)____________. What have we learned?  First of all, we’ve learned that a sense of calling is surprisingly prevalent—in most samples, anywhere from one-third to two-thirds of participants across a wide range of occupations indicate that they think of their work as a calling.  Second, we’ve learned that people with a calling tend to be better off than those who think of their work in other ways.  For example, people with callings are more confident in making career decisions, more committed to their jobs and organizations, more intrinsically motivated and engaged, and more satisfied with their jobs. (5)____________. The news is not all good; some people with callings are vulnerable to workaholism, or exploitation by unscrupulous employers.  Still, the weight of the evidence suggests that on balance, viewing work as a calling is usually associated with nontrivial benefits, both in terms of career development progress but also general well-being.

How can you discern your calling?For many people (like Marisa) who are unhappy with their work, or who lack a clear sense of direction, the question “How do I discern my calling?” is front-and-center.  What steps can you take to figure out what your calling is?  The approach that some people take is to wish for a sign, something that reveals the path forward unmistakably.  The “hope and wait approach” is rarely successful, though, if the waiting is a passive type of waiting. (6)_____________. This process is best summarized in four steps:

1. Understand how you’re unique. What are your “gifts,” broadly defined?  Your particular set of gifts make you different from other people—well-suited for some types of work, and not as well-suited for others.  By gifts, I mean interests, values, personality traits, abilities.  You can identify your gifts through introspection, by paying attention to your past experiences, or seeking feedback from people who know you well. (7) _______________. The job Zoology VIP (values, interests, and personality) assessments are just one example of reliable and valid measurement tools that can help you understand what you enjoy, what is most important to you in work environment, and how you tend to behave in ways that make you different from other people.

2. Understand opportunities in the world of work. Given how you are unique, gifted differently than other people, which career paths are most likely to provide you with satisfaction and meaning?  When embarking on a career that fits you well, you will feel like a fish swimming with the current instead of against it.  The job will seem natural, invigorating, exciting, meaningful. What opportunities will allow you to use your gifts to make a meaningful difference?  One place to explore different career paths is the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Information Network, or O*NET.  This site provides detailed information for more than 1000 job titles, including the interests and values that characterize people who are happily employed within each job. (8)_________________. The job Zoology VIP assessment portal uses an algorithm to match you to possible good-fitting jobs based on your scores, but anyone can search occupations in the O*NET on their own at no charge.  Once you find a career path that looks promising, conducting an informational interview with someone in that line of work is an excellent way to get more detailed information about what life is like in that job.

3. Identify an optimal fit.  Once you have a clearer sense of your gifts, and have examined possible good-fitting career paths, the next step is to choose an option to pursue.  (9)___________. When that is the case, it may feel like a problem, but it’s a very good problem to have, because it means you have multiple options that could work well.  Which one is the “right” one?  Quite possibly all of them are; you have the freedom to choose with the comfort of knowing there is no obvious wrong choice.

4. Seek support. Career decisions are best made in community, not in isolation.  Research evidence supports this. Career counseling interventions that focus on enlisting encouragement and support from important others in the lives of job-seekers are substantially more effective than those that don’t do this.  One option to consider is to invite three to five people in your life—people who you trust, who have your best interests in mind, and who know you well—to serve on a “personal board of directors.” (10)______________. Keeping in close contact with them during your career decision-making process will bolster your confidence and help ensure that you are considering your options from all angles, without blinders.

By Bryan Dik

A For those with a calling, though, work is more about the chance to use their gifts to make a meaningful difference in the world. 

B A much better strategy is to “hope and be active,” using available resources to gain a clearer sense of one’s gifts, explore opportunities and needs in the world of work, and identify opportunities that offer an optimal fit. 

C However, an especially efficient method of identifying your gifts is to take some career assessments. 

D Meet with each of them, and seek support and honest input from them regarding your strengths and weaknesses, along with suggestions for the kinds of opportunities in which they think you’d thrive. 

E In fact, research on calling is very hot right now, with more studies published on the topic in the last five years than in all of history before that.

F This is not always easy; sometimes, a few different career paths seem like equally promising fits. 

G She was also widely respected, both within and outside of her company. 

H If your gifts match those of people in a particular job who love what they do, that job might be a good option for you to consider. 

I But she hated that these things served as golden handcuffs, chaining her to work that she had never really enjoyed

J They are also happier, more satisfied with life, cope more effectively with challenges, are less likely to suffer from stress and depression, and express a stronger sense of meaning and purpose in their lives. 



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TEXT 3

Task type: Matching titles

Read the article. Match titles (A - J) with the paragraphs (1 -10). Write your answers in the boxes below the task.

Student life: 10 study tips to improve your revision

Whether you’re a fresher or in your final year at university, these study hacks can make it easier to remember information and ultimately help you do better in your exams.


1.___________. Do you think cramming the last morsel of information into your brain right before you sit the exam is the answer to better grades? Research conducted by Dr Chuck Hillman of the University of Illinois provides evidence that taking a brisk walk or doing exercise for about 20 minutes before taking a test can boost memory and brain power. Remember to grab your walking shoes before you head off to the exam hall.
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  • Read the article. Mark statements (1 -10) below the text as T (true) or F (false). Write your answers in the boxes below the task.
  • What is a calling
  • How can you discern your calling
  • Read the article. Match titles (A - J) with the paragraphs (1 -10). Write your answers in the boxes below the task. Student life: 10 study tips to improve your revision
  • 1.___________.